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Common Problem-Solving Models & How to Use Them

Problem – solving models are step-by-step processes that provide a framework for addressing challenges. Problems arise in every facet of life. From work. to home. to friends and family, problems and conflicts can make life difficult and interfere with our physical and mental well-being. Understanding how to approach problems when they arise and implementing problem-solving techniques can make the journey through a problem less onerous on ourselves and those around us.

By building a structured problem-solving process, you can begin to build muscle memory by repeatedly practicing the same approach, and eventually, you may even begin to find yourself solving complex problems . Building a problem-solving model for each of the situations where you may encounter a problem can give you a path forward, even when the most difficult of problems arise.

This article will explore the concept of problem-solving models and dive into examples of such models and how to use them. It will also outline the benefits of implementing a problem-solving model in each area of life and why these problem-solving methods can have a large impact on your overall well-being. The goal of this article is to help you identify effective problem-solving strategies and develop critical thinking to generate solutions for any problem that comes your way.

Problem-Solving Model Defined

The first step in creating a problem-solving plan is to understand what we mean when we say problem-solving models. A problem-solving model is a step-by-step process that helps a team identify and effectively solve problems that they may encounter. This problem-solving approach gives the team the muscle memory and guide to address a conflict and resolve disputes quickly and effectively.

There are common problem-solving models that many teams have implemented, but there is also the freedom to shape a method to fit the needs of a specific situation. These models often rely on various problem-solving techniques to identify the root cause of the issue and find the best solution. This article will explore some common problem-solving models as well as general problem-solving techniques to help a team engage with and solve problems effectively.

Benefits of Implementing Problem-Solving Models

Before we discuss the exact models for problem-solving, it can be helpful to discuss why problem-solving models are beneficial in the first place. There are a variety of benefits to having a plan in place when a problem arises, but a few important benefits are listed below.

Guide Posts

When a team encounters a problem and has a guide for how to approach and solve the problem, it can be a relief to know that they have a process to fall back on when the issue cannot be resolved quickly from the beginning. A problem-solving strategy will serve as a guide for the parties to know which steps to take next and how to identify the appropriate solution.

It can also clarify when the issue needs to stay within the team, and when the issue needs to be escalated to someone in a position with more authority. It can also help the entire team solve complex problems without creating an issue out of the way the team solves the problem. It gives the team a blueprint to work from and encourages them to find a good solution.

Creative Solutions That Last

When the team or family has a way to fall back on to solve a problem, it takes some of the pressure off of coming up with the process and allows the parties to focus on identifying the relevant information and coming up with various potential solutions to the issue. By using a problem-solving method, the parties can come up with different solutions and find common ground with the best solution. This can be stifled if the team is too focused on figuring out how to solve the problem.

Additionally, the solutions that the parties come up with through problem-solving tools will often address the root cause of the issue and stop the team from having to revisit the same problem over and over again. This can lead to overall productivity and well-being and help the team continue to output quality work. By encouraging collaboration and creativity, a problem-solving technique will often keep solving problems between the parties moving forward and possibly even address them before they show up.

Common Models to Use in the Problem-Solving Process

Several models can be applied to a complex problem and create possible solutions. These range from common and straightforward to creative and in-depth to identify the most effective ways to solve a problem. This section will discuss and break down the problem-solving models that are most frequently used.

Standard Problem-Solving Process

When you search for a problem-solving technique, chances are you will find the standard model for saving problems. This model identifies and uses several important steps that will often be used in other models as well, so it can be helpful to begin the model-building process with an understanding of this model as a base. Other models often draw from this process and adapt one or more of the steps to help create additional options. Each of these steps works to accomplish a specific goal in furtherance of a solution.

Define the Problem

The first step in addressing a problem is to create a clear definition of the issue at hand. This will often require the team to communicate openly and honestly to place parameters around the issue. As the team defines the problem, it will be clear what needs to be solved and what pieces of the conflict are ancillary to the major issue. It helps to find the root causes of the issue and begin a process to address that rather than the symptoms of the problem. The team can also create a problem statement, which outlines the parameters of the problem and what needs to be fixed.

In addition to open and honest communication, other techniques can help to identify the root cause and define the problem. This includes a thorough review of the processes and steps that are currently used in the task and whether any of those steps are directly or indirectly causing the problem.

This includes reviewing how tasks are done, how communication is shared, and the current partners and team members that work together to identify if any of those are part of the issue. It is also the time to identify if some of the easy fixes or new tools would solve the problem and what the impact would be.

It is also important to gain a wide understanding of the problem from all of the people involved. Many people will have opinions on what is going on, but it is also important to understand the facts over the opinions that are affecting the problem. This can also help you identify if the problem is arising from a boundary or standard that is not being met or honored. By gathering data and understanding the source of the problem, the process of solving it can begin.

Generate Solutions

The next step in the basic process is to generate possible solutions to the problem. At this step, it is less important to evaluate how each of the options will play out and how they may change the process and more important to identify solutions that could address the issue. This includes solutions that support the goals of the team and the task, and the team can also identify short and long-term solutions.

The team should work to brainstorm as many viable solutions as possible to give them the best options to consider moving forward. They cannot pick the first solution that is proposed and consider it a successful problem-solving process.

Evaluate and Select

After a few good options have been identified, the next step is to evaluate the options and pick the most viable option that also supports the goals of the team or organization. This includes looking at each of the possible solutions and determining how they would either encourage or hinder the goals and standards of the team. These should evaluated without bias toward the solution proposed or the person putting forward the solution. Additionally, the team should consider both actual outcomes that have happened in the past and predicted instances that may occur if the solution is chosen.

Each solution should be evaluated by considering if the solution would solve the current problem without causing additional issues, the willingness of the team to buy in and implement the solution, and the actual ability of the team to implement the solution.

Participation and honesty from all team members will make the process go more smoothly and ensure that the best option for everyone involved is selected. Once the team picks the option they would like to use for the specific problem, they should clearly define what the solution is and how it should be implemented. There should also be a strategy for how to evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Implement the Solution and Follow Up

Once a solution is chosen, a team will often assume that the work of solving problems is complete. However, the final step in the basic model is an important step to determine if the matter is resolved or if additional options are needed. After the solution has been implemented by the team, the members of the team must provide feedback and identify any potential obstacles that may have been missed in the decision-making process.

This encourages long-term solutions for the problem and helps the team to continue to move forward with their work. It also gives the team a sense of ownership and an example of how to evaluate an idea in the future.

If the solution is not working the way that it should, the team will often need to adapt the option, or they may get to the point where they scrap the option and attempt another. Solving a problem is not always a linear process, and encouraging reform and change within the process will help the team find the answer to the issues that they face.

GROW Method

Another method that is similar to the standard method is the G.R.O.W. method. This method has very similar steps to the standard method, but the catchiness of the acronym helps a team approach the problem from the same angle each time and work through the method quickly.

The first step in the method is to identify a goal, which is what the “g” stands for in “grow.” To establish a goal, the team will need to look at the issues that they are facing and identify what they would like to accomplish and solve through the problem-solving process. The team will likely participate in conversations that identify the issues that they are facing and what they need to resolve.

The next step is to establish the current reality that the group is facing. This helps them to determine where they currently are and what needs to be done to move them forward. This can help the group establish a baseline for where they started and what they would like to change.

The next step is to find any obstacles that may be blocking the group from achieving their goal. This is where the main crux of the issues that the group is facing will come out. This is also helpful in giving the group a chance to find ways around these obstacles and toward a solution.

Way Forward

After identifying the obstacles and potential ways to avoid them, the group will then need to pick the best way to move forward and approach their goal together. Here, they will need to create steps to move forward with that goal.

Divide and Conquer

Another common problem-solving method is the divide-and-conquer method. Here, instead of the entire team working through each step of the process as a large group, they split up the issue into smaller problems that can be solved and have individual members or small groups work through the smaller problems. Once each group is satisfied with the solution to the problem, they present it to the larger group to consider along with the other options.

This process can be helpful if there is a large team attempting to solve a large and complex problem. It is also beneficial because it can be used in teams with smaller, specialized teams within it because it allows each smaller group to focus on what they know best.

However, it does encourage the parties to shy away from collaboration on the overall issue, and the different solutions that each proposes may not be possible when combined and implemented.

For this reason, it is best to use this solution when approaching complex problems with large teams and the ability to combine several problem-solving methods into one.

Six Thinking Hats

The Six Thinking Hats theory is a concept designed for a team with a lot of differing conflict styles and problem-solving techniques. This method was developed to help sort through the various techniques that people may use and help a team find a solution that works for everyone involved. It helps to organize thinking and lead the conversation to the best possible solution.

Within this system, there are six different “hats” that identify with the various aspects of the decision-making process: the overall process, idea generation, intuition and emotions, values, information gathering, and caution or critical thinking. The group agrees to participate in the process by agreeing on which of the hats the group is wearing at a given moment. This helps set parameters and expectations around what the group is attempting to achieve at any moment.

This system is particularly good in a group with different conflict styles or where people have a hard time collecting and organizing their thoughts. It can be incredibly beneficial for complex problems with many moving parts. It can also help groups identify how each of the smaller sections relates to the big picture and help create new ideas to answer the overall problem.

However, it can derail if the group focuses too heavily or for too long on one of the “hats.” The group should ensure that they have a facilitator to guide them through the process and ensure that each idea and section is considered adequately.

Trial and Error

The trial and error process takes over the evaluation and selection process and instead chooses to try out each of the alternatives to determine what the best option would be. It allows the team to gather data on each of the options and how they apply practically. It also provides the ability for the team to have an example of each possible answer to help a decision-maker determine what the best option is.

Problem-solving methods that focus on trial and error can be helpful when a team has a simple problem or a lot of time to test potential solutions, gather data, and determine an answer to the issue.

It can also be helpful when the team has a sense of the best guess for a solution but wants to test it out to determine if the data supports that option, or if they have several viable options and would like to identify the best one. However, it can be incredibly time-consuming to test each of the options and evaluate how they went. Time can often be saved by evaluating each option and selecting the best to test.

Other Problem-Solving Skills

In addition to the methods outlined above, other problem-solving skills can be used regardless of the model that is used. These techniques can round out the problem-solving process and help address either specific steps in the overall method or alter the step in some way to help it fit a specific situation.

Ask Good Questions

One of the best ways to work through any of the problem-solving models is to ask good questions. This will help the group find the issue at the heart of the problem and address that issue rather than the symptoms. The best questions will also help the group find viable solutions and pick the solution that the group can use to move forward. The more creative the questions , the more likely that they will produce innovative solutions.

Take a Step Back

Occasionally, paying attention to a problem too much can give the group tunnel vision and harm the overall processes that the group is using. Other times, the focus can lead to escalations in conflict. When this happens, it can be helpful to set aside the problem and give the group time to calm down. Once they have a chance to reconsider the options and how they apply, they can approach the issue with a new sense of purpose and determination. This can lead to additional creative solutions that may help the group find a new way forward.

Final Thoughts

Problem-solving can be a daunting part of life. However, with a good problem-solving method and the right techniques, problems can be addressed well and quickly. Applying some of these options outlined in this article can give you a head start in solving your next problem and any others that arise.

To learn more about problem-solving models, problem-solving activities, and more, contact ADR Times !

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To Solve a Tough Problem, Reframe It

  • Julia Binder
  • Michael D. Watkins

able problem solving model launch

Research shows that companies devote too little effort to examining problems before trying to solve them. By jumping immediately into problem-solving, teams limit their ability to design innovative solutions.

The authors recommend that companies spend more time up front on problem-framing, a process for understanding and defining a problem. Exploring different frames is like looking at a scene through various camera lenses while adjusting your angle, aperture, and focus. A wide-angle lens gives you a very different photo from that taken with a telephoto lens, and shifting your angle and depth of focus yields distinct images. Effective problem-framing is similar: Looking at a problem from a variety of perspectives helps you uncover new insights and generate fresh ideas.

This article introduces a five-phase approach to problem-framing: In the expand phase, the team identifies all aspects of a problem; in examine, it dives into root causes; in empathize, it considers key stakeholders’ perspectives; in elevate, it puts the problem into a broader context; and in envision, it creates a road map toward the desired outcome.

Five steps to ensure that you don’t jump to solutions

Idea in Brief

The problem.

Research shows that most companies devote too little effort to examining problems from all angles before trying to solve them. That limits their ability to come up with innovative ways to address them.

The Solution

Companies need a structured approach for understanding and defining complex problems to uncover new insights and generate fresh ideas.

The Approach

This article introduces a five-phase approach to problem-framing: In the expand phase, the team identifies all aspects of a problem; in examine, it dives into root causes; in empathize, it considers key stakeholders’ perspectives; in elevate, it puts the problem into a broader context; and in envision, it creates a road map toward the desired outcome.

When business leaders confront complex problems, there’s a powerful impulse to dive right into “solving” mode: You gather a team and then identify potential solutions. That’s fine for challenges you’ve faced before or when proven methods yield good results. But what happens when a new type of problem arises or aspects of a familiar one shift substantially? Or if you’re not exactly sure what the problem is?

Research conducted by us and others shows that leaders and their teams devote too little effort to examining and defining problems before trying to solve them. A study by Paul Nutt of Ohio State University, for example, looked at 350 decision-making processes at medium to large companies and found that more than half failed to achieve desired results, often because perceived time pressure caused people to pay insufficient attention to examining problems from all angles and exploring their complexities. By jumping immediately into problem-solving, teams limit their ability to design innovative and durable solutions.

When we work with organizations and teams, we encourage them to spend more time up front on problem-framing, a process for understanding and defining a problem. Exploring frames is like looking at a scene through various camera lenses while adjusting your angle, aperture, and focus. A wide-angle lens will give you a very different photo from that taken with a telephoto lens, and shifting your angle and depth of focus yields distinct images. Effective problem-framing is similar: Looking at a problem from a variety of perspectives lets you uncover new insights and generate fresh ideas.

As with all essential processes, it helps to have a methodology and a road map. This article introduces the E5 approach to problem-framing—expand, examine, empathize, elevate, and envision—and offers tools that enable leaders to fully explore the problem space.

Phase 1: Expand

In the first phase, set aside preconceptions and open your mind. We recommend using a tool called frame-storming, which encourages a comprehensive exploration of an issue and its nuances. It is a neglected precursor to brainstorming, which typically focuses on generating many different answers for an already framed challenge. Frame-storming helps teams identify assumptions and blind spots, mitigating the risk of pursuing inadequate or biased solutions. The goal is to spark innovation and creativity as people dig into—or as Tina Seelig from Stanford puts it, “fall in love with”—the problem.

Begin by assembling a diverse team, encompassing a variety of types of expertise and perspectives. Involving outsiders can be helpful, since they’re often coming to the issue cold. A good way to prompt the team to consider alternative scenarios is by asking “What if…?” and “How might we…?” questions. For example, ask your team, “What if we had access to unlimited resources to tackle this issue?” or “How might better collaboration between departments or teams help us tackle this issue?” The primary objective is to generate many alternative problem frames, allowing for a more holistic understanding of the issue. Within an open, nonjudgmental atmosphere, you deliberately challenge established thinking—what we call “breaking” the frame.

It may be easy to eliminate some possibilities, and that’s exactly what you should do. Rather than make assumptions, generate alternative hypotheses and then test them.

Consider the problem-framing process at a company we’ll call Omega Soundscapes, a midsize producer of high-end headphones. (Omega is a composite of several firms we’ve worked with.) Omega’s sales had declined substantially over the past two quarters, and the leadership team’s initial diagnosis, or reference frame, was that recent price hikes to its flagship product made it too expensive for its target market. Before acting on this assumption, the team convened knowledgeable representatives from sales, marketing, R&D, customer service, and external consultants to do some frame-storming. Team members were asked:

  • What if we lowered the price of our flagship product? How would that impact sales and profitability?
  • How might we identify customers in new target markets who could afford our headphones at the current price?
  • What if we offered financing or a subscription-based model for our headphones? How would that change perceptions of affordability?
  • How might we optimize our supply chain and production processes to reduce manufacturing costs without compromising quality?

In playing out each of those scenarios, the Omega team generated several problem frames:

  • The target market’s preferences have evolved.
  • New competitors have entered the market.
  • Product quality has decreased.
  • Something has damaged perceptions of the brand.
  • Something has changed in the priorities of our key distributors.

Each of the frames presented a unique angle from which to approach the problem of declining sales, setting the stage for the development of diverse potential solutions. At this stage, it may be relatively easy to eliminate some possibilities, and that’s exactly what you should do. Rather than make assumptions, generate alternative hypotheses and then test them.

Open Your Mind. Whereas brainstorming often involves generating many solutions for an already framed problem, frame-storming encourages teams to identify all aspects of a challenge. This graphic shows two diagrams. The first depicts brainstorming, where a single problem bubble leads to multiple solution bubbles. The second diagram depicts frame-storming, where a single problem bubble leads to multiple bubbles, labeled alternative problem frames, that represent different ways of defining the problem itself.

See more HBR charts in Data & Visuals

Phase 2: Examine

If the expand phase is about identifying all the facets of a problem, this one is about diving deep to identify root causes. The team investigates the issue thoroughly, peeling back the layers to understand underlying drivers and systemic contributors.

A useful tool for doing this is the iceberg model, which guides the team through layers of causation: surface-level events, the behavioral patterns that drive them, underlying systematic structures, and established mental models. As you probe ever deeper and document your findings, you begin to home in on the problem’s root causes. As is the case in the expand phase, open discussions and collaborative research are crucial for achieving a comprehensive analysis.

Let’s return to our Omega Soundscapes example and use the iceberg model to delve into the issues surrounding the two quarters of declining sales. Starting with the first layer beneath the surface, the behavioral pattern, the team diligently analyzed customer feedback. It discovered a significant drop in brand loyalty. This finding validated the problem frame of a “shifting brand perception,” prompting further investigation into what might have been causing it.

able problem solving model launch

Phase 3: Empathize

In this phase, the focus is on the stakeholders—employees, customers, clients, investors, supply chain partners, and other parties—who are most central to and affected by the problem under investigation. The core objective is to understand how they perceive the issue: what they think and feel, how they’re acting, and what they want.

First list all the people who are directly or indirectly relevant to the problem. It may be helpful to create a visual representation of the network of relationships in the ecosystem. Prioritize the stakeholders according to their level of influence on and interest in the problem, and focus on understanding the roles, demographics, behavior patterns, motivations, and goals of the most important ones.

Now create empathy maps for those critical stakeholders. Make a template divided into four sections: Say, Think, Feel, and Do. Conduct interviews or surveys to gather authentic data. How do various users explain the problem? How do they think about the issue, and how do their beliefs inform that thinking? What emotions are they feeling and expressing? How are they behaving? Populate each section of the map with notes based on your observations and interactions. Finally, analyze the completed empathy maps. Look for pain points, inconsistencies, and patterns in stakeholder perspectives.

Returning to the Omega case study, the team identified its ecosystem of stakeholders: customers (both current and potential); retail partners and distributors; the R&D, marketing, and sales teams; suppliers of headphone components; investors and shareholders; and new and existing competitors. They narrowed the list to a few key stakeholders related to the declining-sales problem: customers, retail partners, and investors/shareholders; Omega created empathy maps for representatives from each.

Here’s what the empathy maps showed about what the stakeholders were saying, thinking, feeling, and doing:

Sarah, the customer, complained on social media about the high price of her favorite headphones. Dave, the retailer, expressed concerns about unsold inventory and the challenge of convincing customers to buy the expensive headphones. Alex, the shareholder, brought up Omega’s declining financial performance during its annual investor day.

Sarah thought that Omega was losing touch with its loyal customer base. Dave was considering whether to continue carrying Omega’s products in his store or explore other brands. Alex was contemplating diversifying his portfolio into other consumer-tech companies.

As a longtime supporter of the brand, Sarah felt frustrated and slightly betrayed. Dave was feeling anxious about the drop in sales and the impact on his store’s profitability. Alex was unhappy with the declining stock value.

Sarah was looking for alternatives to the headphones, even though she loves the product’s quality. Dave was scheduling a call with Omega to negotiate pricing and terms. Alex was planning to attend Omega’s next shareholder meeting to find out more information from the leadership team.

When Omega leaders analyzed the data in the maps, they realized that pricing wasn’t the only reason for declining sales. A more profound issue was customers’ dissatisfaction with the perceived price-to-quality ratio, especially when compared with competitors’ offerings. That insight prompted the team to consider enhancing the headphones with additional features, offering more-affordable alternatives, and possibly switching to a service model.

Engage with Stakeholders. Create an empathy map and conduct interviews and surveys to gather data to populate each section. This diagram shows a person in the center representing various types of stakeholders, with four questions companies should ask: What do stakeholders think? What do they do? What do they say? And what do they feel?

Phase 4: Elevate

This phase involves exploring how the problem connects to broader organizational issues. It’s like zooming out on a map to understand where a city lies in relation to the whole country or continent. This bird’s-eye view reveals interconnected issues and their implications.

For this analysis, we recommend the four-frame model developed by Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal, which offers distinct lenses through which to view the problem at a higher level. The structural frame helps you explore formal structures (such as hierarchy and reporting relationships); processes (such as workflow); and systems, rules, and policies. This frame examines efficiency, coordination, and alignment of activities.

The human resources frame focuses on people, relationships, and social dynamics. This includes teamwork, leadership, employee motivation, engagement, professional development, and personal growth. In this frame, the organization is seen as a community or a family that recognizes that talent is its most valuable asset. The political frame delves into power dynamics, competing interests, conflicts, coalitions, and negotiations. From this perspective, organizations are arenas where various stakeholders vie for resources and engage in political struggles to influence decisions. It helps you see how power is distributed, used, and contested.

The symbolic frame highlights the importance of symbols, rituals, stories, and shared values in shaping group identity and culture. In it, organizations are depicted as theaters through which its members make meaning.

Using this model, the Omega team generated the following insights in the four frames:


A deeper look into the company’s structure revealed siloing and a lack of coordination between the R&D and marketing departments, which had led to misaligned messaging to customers. It also highlighted a lack of collaboration between the two functions and pointed to the need to communicate with the target market about the product’s features and benefits in a coherent and compelling way.

Human resources.

This frame revealed that the declining sales and price hikes had ramped up pressure on the sales team, damaging morale. The demotivated team was struggling to effectively promote the product, making it harder to recover from declining sales. Omega realized it was lacking adequate support, training, and incentives for the team.

The key insight from this frame was that the finance team’s reluctance to approve promotions in the sales group to maintain margins was exacerbating the morale problem. Omega understood that investing in sales leadership development while still generating profits was crucial for long-term success and that frank discussions about the issue were needed.

This frame highlighted an important misalignment in perception: The company believed that its headphones were of “top quality,” while customers reported in surveys that they were “overpriced.” This divergence raised alarm that branding, marketing, and pricing strategies, which were all predicated on the central corporate value of superior quality, were no longer resonating with customers. Omega realized that it had been paying too little attention to quality assurance and functionality.

Adjust Your Vantage Point. Explore the broader organizational issues that factor into the problem, using four distinct frames. This diagram shows four quadrants: the first is political, including power dynamics, competing interests, and coalitions. The second is interpersonal, including people and relationships. The third is structural, including coordination and alignment of activities, and the fourth is symbolic, including group identity and culture.

Phase 5: Envision

In this phase, you transition from framing the problem to actively imagining and designing solutions. This involves synthesizing the insights gained from earlier phases and crafting a shared vision of the desired future state.

Here we recommend using a technique known as backcasting. First, clearly define your desired goal. For example, a team struggling with missed deadlines and declining productivity might aim to achieve on-time completion rates of 98% for its projects and increase its volume of projects by 5% over the next year. Next, reverse engineer the path to achieving your goal. Outline key milestones required over both the short term and the long term. For each one, pinpoint specific interventions, strategies, and initiatives that will propel you closer to your goal. These may encompass changes in processes, policies, technologies, and behaviors. Synthesize the activities into a sequenced, chronological, prioritized road map or action plan, and allocate the resources, including time, budget, and personnel, necessary to implement your plan. Finally, monitor progress toward your goal and be prepared to adjust the plan in response to outcomes, feedback, or changing circumstances. This approach ensures that the team’s efforts in implementing the insights from the previous phases are strategically and purposefully directed toward a concrete destination.

able problem solving model launch

Applying the Approach

Albert Einstein once said, “If I had one hour to solve a problem, I would spend 55 minutes thinking about the problem and five minutes thinking about the solution.” That philosophy underpins our E5 framework, which provides a structured approach for conscientiously engaging with complex problems before leaping to solutions.

As teams use the methodology, they must understand that problem-framing in today’s intricate business landscape is rarely a linear process. While we’re attempting to provide a structured path, we also recognize the dynamic nature of problems and the need for adaptability. Invariably, as teams begin to implement solutions, new facets of a problem may come to light, unforeseen challenges may arise, or external circumstances may evolve. Your team should be ready to loop back to previous phases—for instance, revisiting the expand phase to reassess the problem’s frame, delving deeper into an overlooked root cause in another examine phase, or gathering fresh insights from stakeholders in a new empathize phase. Ultimately, the E5 framework is intended to foster a culture of continuous improvement and innovation.

  • JB Julia Binder is the director of the Center for Sustainable and Inclusive Business and a professor of sustainable innovation at IMD.
  • Michael D. Watkins is a professor of leadership and organizational change at IMD , a cofounder of Genesis Advisers , and the author of The Six Disciplines of Strategic Thinking .

able problem solving model launch

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able problem solving model launch

  • Business strategy |
  • Problem management: 8 steps to better p ...

Problem management: 8 steps to better problem solving

Alicia Raeburn contributor headshot

Problem management is an 8 step framework most commonly used by IT teams. You can use problem management to solve for repeating major incidents. By organizing and structuring your problem solving, you can more effectively get to the root cause of high-impact problems—and devise a solution. Solving the root cause prevents recurrence and creates a repeatable solution to use on similar errors in the future.

In an IT department, errors and mishaps are part of the job. You can't always control these problems, but you can control how you respond to them with problem management. Problem management helps you solve larger problems and reduce the risk that they’ll happen again by identifying all connected problems, solving them, and planning for the future.

What is problem management?

Problem management is an 8 step framework most commonly used by IT teams. Your team can use problem management to solve for repeating major incidents. By organizing and structuring your problem solving, you can more effectively get to the root cause of high-impact problems—and devise a solution. Problem management is a process—used mostly by IT teams—to identify, react, and respond to issues. It’s not for every problem, but it’s a useful response when multiple major incidents occur that cause large work interruptions. Unlike problem solving, problem management goes beyond the initial incident to discover and dissect the root causes, preventing future incidents with permanent solutions.

The goals of problem management are to:

Prevent problems before they start.

Solve for repetitive errors.

Lessen each incident’s impact. 

Problem management vs. incident management 

Example: Someone leaves their unprotected laptop in a coffee shop, causing a security breach. The security team can use incident management to solve for this one, isolated event. In this case, the team could manually shut down the accounts connected to that laptop. If this continues to happen, IT would use problem management to solve the root of this issue—perhaps installing more security features on each company laptop so that if employees lose them, no one else can access the information.

Problem management vs. problem solving

While similar in name, problem management differs slightly from problem-solving. Problem management focuses on every aspect of the incident—identifying the root cause of the problem, solving it, and prevention. Problem solving is, as the name implies, focused solely on the solution step. 

Example: You’re launching a new password management system when it crashes—again. You don’t know if anything leaked, but you know it could contain confidential information. Plus, it’s happened before. You start the problem management process to ensure it doesn’t happen again. In that process, you’ll use problem solving as a step to fix the issue. In this case, perhaps securing confidential information before you try to launch a new software.

Problem management vs. change management 

Change management targets large transitions within your workplace, good and bad. These inevitable changes aren’t always negative, so you can’t always apply problem management as a solution. That’s where change management comes in—a framework that helps you adjust to any new scenario.

Example: Your company is transitioning to a new cloud platform. The transition happens incident-free—meaning you won’t need problem management—but you can ease the transition by implementing some change management best practices. Preparing and training team members in the new software is a good place to start.

Problem management vs. project management

Project management is the framework for larger collections of work. It’s the overarching method for how you work on any project, hit goals, and get results. You can use project management to help you with problem management, but they are not the same thing. Problem management and project management work together to solve issues as part of your problem management process.

Example: During problem management, you uncover a backend security issue that needs to be addressed—employees are using storage software with outdated security measures. To solve this, you create a project and outline the tasks from start to finish. In this case, you might need to alert senior executives, get approval to remove the software, and alert employees. You create a project schedule with a defined timeline and assign the tasks to relevant teams. In this process, you identified a desired outcome—remove the unsafe software—and solved it. That’s project management.

The 8 steps of problem management

It’s easy to get upset when problems occur. In fact, it’s totally normal. But an emotional response is not always the best response when faced with new incidents. Having a reliable system—such as problem management—removes the temptation to respond emotionally. Proactive project management gives your team a framework for problem solving. It’s an iterative process —the more you use it, the more likely you are to have fewer problems, faster response times, and better outputs. 

1. Identify the problem

During problem identification, you’re looking at the present—what’s happening right now? Here, you’ll define what the incident is and its scale. Is this a small, quick-fix, or a full overhaul? Consider using problem framing to define, prioritize, and understand the obstacles involved with these more complex problems. 

2. Diagnose the cause

Use problem analysis or root cause analysis to strategically look at the cause of a problem. Follow the trail of issues all the way back to its beginnings.

To diagnose the underlying cause, you’ll want to answer:

What factors or conditions led to the incident?

Do you see related incidents? Could those be coming from the same source?

Did someone miss a step? Are processes responsible for this problem?

3. Organize and prioritize

Now it’s time to build out your framework. Use an IT project plan to organize information in a space where everyone can make and see updates in real time. The easiest way to do this is with a project management tool where you can input ‌tasks, assign deadlines, and add dependencies to ensure nothing gets missed. To better organize your process, define:

What needs to be done? 

Who’s responsible for each aspect? If no one is, can we assign someone? 

When does each piece need to be completed?

What is the final number of incidents related to this problem?

Are any of these tasks dependent on another one? Do you need to set up dependencies ?

What are your highest priorities? How do they affect our larger business goals ? 

How should you plan for this in the future?

4. Create a workaround

If the incident has stopped work or altered it, you might need to create a workaround. This is not always necessary, but temporary workarounds can keep work on track and avoid backlog while you go through the problem management steps. When these workarounds are especially effective, you can make them permanent processes.

5. Update your known error database

Every time an incident occurs, create a known error record and add it to your known error database (KEDB). Recording incidents helps you catch recurrences and logs the solution, so you know how to solve similar errors in the future. 

[product ui] Incident log example (lists)

6. Pause for change management (if necessary)

Larger, high-impact problems might require change management. For example, if you realize the problem’s root cause is a lack of staff, you might dedicate team members to help. You can use change management to help them transition their responsibilities, see how these new roles fit in with the entire team, and determine how they will collaborate moving forward.

7. Solve the problem

This is the fun part—you get to resolve problems. At this stage, you should know exactly what you’re dealing with and the steps you need to take. But remember—with problem management, it’s not enough to solve the current problem. You’ll want to take any steps to prevent this from happening again in the future. That could mean hiring a new role to cover gaps in workflows , investing in new softwares and tools, or training staff on best practices to prevent these types of incidents.

Read: Turn your team into skilled problem solvers with these problem-solving strategies

8. Reflect on the process

The problem management process has the added benefit of recording the process in its entirety, so you can review it in the future. Once you’ve solved the problem, take the time to review each step and reflect on the lessons learned during this process. Make note of who was involved, what you needed, and any opportunities to improve your response to the next incident. After you go through the problem management process a few times and understand the basic steps, stakeholders, workload, and resources you need, create a template to make the kickoff process easier in the future.

5 benefits of problem management

Problem management helps you discover every piece of the problem—from the current scenario down to its root cause. Not only does this have an immediate positive impact on the current issue at hand, it also promotes collaboration and helps to build a better product overall. 

Here are five other ways ‌problem management can benefit your team:

Avoids repeat incidents. When you manage the entire incident from start to finish, you will address the foundational problems that caused it. This leads to fewer repeat incidents.

Boosts cross-functional collaboration. Problem management is a collaborative process. One incident might require collaboration from IT, the security team, and legal. Depending on the level of the problem, it might trickle all the way back down to the product or service team, where core changes need to be made.

Creates a better user experience. It’s simple—the fewer incidents you have, the better your customer’s experience will be. Reducing incidents means fewer delays, downtime, and frustrations for your users, and a higher rate of customer satisfaction.

Improves response time. As you develop a flow and framework with a project management process, you’ll be better equipped to handle future incidents—even if they’re different scenarios.

Organizes problem solving. Problem management provides a structured, thoughtful approach to solving problems. This reduces impulsive responses and helps you keep a better problem record of incidents and solutions.

Problem management leads to better, faster solutions

IT teams will always have to deal with incidents, but they don’t have to be bogged down by them. That’s because problem management works. Whether you employ a full problem management team or choose to apply these practices to your current IT infrastructure, problem management—especially when combined with a project management tool—saves you time and effort down the road.

With IT project plans, we’ve made it easier than ever to track your problem management work in a shared tool. Try our free IT project template to see your work come together, effortlessly.

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Solving a Model Rocket Launch Problem

  • Thread starter Abscissas
  • Start date Jan 22, 2015
  • Tags Algebra Launch Model Model rocket Physics Rocket
  • Jan 22, 2015

Homework Equations


The Attempt at a Solution

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  • Jan 23, 2015

The particular symbols used to represent quantities aren't as important as the equation matching the given situation. Here you have motion in a straight line with constant acceleration(s). The equations you've shown match the scenario, so feel free to change Δx to Δy, or y, or z for that matter.  

Abscissas said: Alright, so, the Δx is replaceable, that is a good thing to know. Alright so I have been manipulating all of these equations to try to isolate time. So for the first part, I am trying to find out how long it takes to get to 150 meters. I have yet to find this equation, or been able to manipulate these 4 to give it to me. for the second part, I can find the Final velocity of the first part, and make that the initial velocity, and the final velocity of the second one will be 0 correct? because it would hit the floor coming to a stop. So once again i have to isolate t, but this time i have the following variables: Yi = 150 meters Yf= 0 a=-9.8 m/s^2 Vi= Vf of part 1

Okay, so i used the second equation to to solve for t, using the quadratic formula. so i got that t=1.90793s. I then used the fourth equation to solve for Vf which came out to be Vf=107.238 m/s. So now I am left only with 2 variables, Vf which now becomes Vi since i am now at the second phase where the engine stops. The second one i have is -g which is -9.8 m/s^2. I know I am overlooking something but I just can't figure it out. Unless Δy is the other variable, but I only have it as initial at 150 for phase 2, and I am not told it started from the ground, infact i am kind of told its not, because it is already going at a velocity of 50m/s. So i am not sure what to do  

Abscissas said: Okay, so i used the second equation to to solve for t, using the quadratic formula. so i got that t=1.90793s. I then used the fourth equation to solve for Vf which came out to be Vf=107.238 m/s. So now I am left only with 2 variables, Vf which now becomes Vi since i am now at the second phase where the engine stops. The second one i have is -g which is -9.8 m/s^2. I know I am overlooking something but I just can't figure it out. Unless Δy is the other variable, but I only have it as initial at 150 for phase 2, and I am not told it started from the ground, infact i am kind of told its not, because it is already going at a velocity of 50m/s. So i am not sure what to do

Well it would be 0, because it lands right? So -150 would be Δy? this wouldn't make sense though because it would continue to go up for a little bit before it would start to go back down, right?  

Abscissas said: Well it would be 0, because it lands right? So -150 would be Δy? this wouldn't make sense though because it would continue to go up for a little bit before it would start to go back down, right?
  • Mar 19, 2015

Oh, I forgot about this, I was able to get it, thanks guys  

  • Sep 17, 2017

I know it seems to be cleared up, but a classmate I was working it wasn't able to follow the thread that well, so I'll shorthand the steps below in case anyone else is having the same issues with this. 1) Engines push rocket up from the ground to an altitude of 150 m. You will need to find the final Velocity at that height because that will be the initial velocity used when calculating the rocket at freefall in the 2nd part of this problem. 2) Know that time is the only variable you don't have here - so use the one equation where t isn't included! 3) Remember initial velocity and initial distance is nothing pre-launch. 4) Now, calculate max height of rocket in freefall. Note that the initial Y will be where the rocket engines cut off, and the initial velocity will also be where the rocket cuts off. Also note that you are looking for max height in this problem (aka: where the rocket stops going upwards and starts to fall down). So the velocity during that change is zero (no longer moving up and not yet moving down). Again, plug into the one equation where t is not a variable. Hope that helps!  

Related to Solving a Model Rocket Launch Problem

The optimal angle for launching a model rocket depends on several factors, including the weight and design of the rocket, wind conditions, and the desired altitude. It is best to consult a launch angle chart or use a launch angle calculator to find the most suitable angle for your specific rocket and launch site.

The recommended engine size for a model rocket launch depends on the weight of the rocket and the desired altitude. It is important to choose an engine that is not too powerful for the rocket, as this can result in damage or loss of the rocket. Consult a rocket motor guide or seek advice from experienced rocket enthusiasts for the best engine size for your rocket.

To calculate the maximum altitude of a model rocket, you will need to know the weight of the rocket, the engine size, and the launch angle. You can use a rocket altitude calculator or use the following formula: Maximum Altitude = (Engine Thrust x Engine Burn Time) / (Rocket Weight x Launch Angle). Keep in mind that this is an estimate and actual results may vary.

If your model rocket consistently fails to launch properly, there are a few things you can try. First, make sure the rocket is assembled correctly and all parts are securely attached. Check the engine size and launch angle to make sure they are appropriate for your rocket. You may also need to adjust the stability of the rocket by adding or removing weight from the nose cone or fins.

To ensure a safe and successful model rocket launch, it is important to carefully follow all safety guidelines and regulations. Choose a suitable launch site with plenty of open space and minimal wind. Always have a designated launch controller and a clear launch countdown procedure. It is also a good idea to perform a test launch with a smaller engine before using a larger one.

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Mastering the Six Step Problem Solving Model – A Comprehensive Guide for Effective Solutions


Problem-solving skills are essential in both personal and professional lives. Whether you are facing a small issue or a complex challenge, having a structured approach can help you navigate through the problem, analyze it thoroughly, and find effective solutions. One popular and widely-used problem-solving model is the Six Step Problem Solving Model. In this blog post, we will explore the six steps of this model in detail, discussing how each step contributes to solving problems successfully.

Understanding the Six Step Problem Solving Model

The Six Step Problem Solving Model provides a systematic framework for approaching problems. Each step plays a crucial role in understanding, analyzing, and resolving the problem at hand. Let’s delve into each step:

Step 1: Define the problem

The first step is to clearly define the problem. This involves identifying the issue you are facing and understanding its importance. You must have a clear understanding of what needs to be solved before you can move forward. A well-defined problem statement sets the foundation for effective problem-solving.

Step 2: Analyze the problem

Once the problem is defined, it’s time to analyze it. This step involves gathering relevant information and identifying the root causes of the problem. By thoroughly understanding the underlying factors contributing to the problem, you can develop targeted strategies to address them.

Step 3: Generate potential solutions

After analyzing the problem, it’s time to brainstorm potential solutions. This step encourages creative thinking and exploration of different possibilities. Utilizing various brainstorming techniques can help generate a wide range of ideas. Once potential solutions are identified, it’s crucial to evaluate them based on their feasibility and potential impact.

Step 4: Choose the best solution

With a list of potential solutions in hand, it’s important to choose the best one. This step involves utilizing decision-making tools to evaluate each solution’s strengths and weaknesses. Factors such as feasibility, cost, and potential impact should be considered during the decision-making process. By selecting the most effective solution, you increase the likelihood of achieving a successful outcome.

Step 5: Implement the solution

Once a solution has been chosen, it’s time to put it into action. This step requires developing a detailed action plan that outlines the necessary steps to implement the solution effectively. Additionally, assigning responsibilities ensures that everyone involved understands their role in the implementation process. By having a well-structured plan, you can streamline the implementation process and minimize potential setbacks.

Step 6: Evaluate and follow-up

The final step of the problem-solving model is to evaluate the effectiveness of the solution implementation and make necessary adjustments if needed. This step involves assessing whether the solution has produced the desired outcome or if further modifications are required. Regular follow-ups are essential to ensure continuous improvement and address any new challenges that arise.

Applying the Six Step Problem Solving Model in Real-life Scenarios

The Six Step Problem Solving Model can be applied to various real-life situations, both personal and professional. Let’s explore some examples:

Personal problem-solving

When faced with a personal problem, such as managing time effectively or improving relationships, the Six Step Problem Solving Model can be a valuable tool. By defining the problem, analyzing its causes, generating potential solutions, choosing the best one, implementing it, and evaluating the results, individuals can overcome personal challenges and improve their well-being.

Professional problem-solving

In a professional setting, problem-solving skills are vital for success. From addressing customer complaints to optimizing business processes, the Six Step Problem Solving Model provides a structured approach. Applying the model allows for a thorough understanding of the problem, consideration of multiple solutions, informed decision-making, effective implementation, and continuous evaluation for improvement.

Case studies highlighting successful application of the model

Let’s take a look at a few case studies that demonstrate the successful application of the Six Step Problem Solving Model:

  • Case Study 1: Resolving Customer Complaints: A customer service team at a retail store implemented the Six Step Problem Solving Model to address a high volume of customer complaints. By defining the problem (long wait times and inadequate product knowledge), analyzing the root causes (staffing issues and lack of training), generating potential solutions (hiring additional staff, providing comprehensive training), choosing the best solution (opting for both solutions), implementing the changes, and evaluating the results, the team successfully reduced customer complaints and improved overall customer satisfaction.
  • Case Study 2: Streamlining Manufacturing Processes: A manufacturing company faced inefficiencies in its production line, resulting in increased costs and delays in product delivery. Utilizing the Six Step Problem Solving Model, the team defined the problem (inefficient workflows and bottlenecks), analyzed the root causes (ineffective equipment maintenance and suboptimal process design), generated potential solutions (implementing regular maintenance schedules, reconfiguring layouts), chose the best solution (combination of both solutions), implemented the changes, and continuously evaluated and adjusted strategies. As a result, the company improved productivity, reduced costs, and enhanced customer satisfaction.

Tips and Best Practices for Mastering the Six Step Problem Solving Model

Mastering the Six Step Problem Solving Model requires a combination of critical thinking, effective communication, and appropriate utilization of problem-solving tools and techniques. Here are some tips to enhance your proficiency in using this model:

Developing critical thinking skills

Critical thinking is essential for problem-solving. Sharpening your critical thinking skills allows you to objectively analyze situations, identify patterns, and generate creative and effective solutions. Engage in activities that promote critical thinking, such as puzzles or mind mapping exercises, to enhance this skill.

Enhancing communication and collaboration

Effective communication and collaboration are key to successful problem-solving. Encourage open and constructive dialogue within teams, actively listen to others’ perspectives, and promote idea sharing. By fostering a collaborative environment, you can tap into the collective knowledge and insights of your team, leading to more comprehensive and innovative solutions.

Utilizing problem-solving tools and techniques

There are various problem-solving tools and techniques available that can complement the Six Step Problem Solving Model. Examples include SWOT analysis, Fishbone diagrams, and decision matrices. Familiarize yourself with these tools, and utilize them as appropriate to enhance your problem-solving capabilities.

Advantages and Limitations of the Six Step Problem Solving Model

While the Six Step Problem Solving Model provides a structured approach to problem-solving, it is important to consider its advantages and limitations:

Advantages of using a structured approach

Using a structured approach, such as the Six Step Problem Solving Model, offers several benefits. It provides a clear framework that guides problem-solving activities, ensures thorough analysis of the problem, and encourages systematic decision-making. Additionally, this model allows for continuous evaluation and improvement, enabling individuals and teams to continuously refine their problem-solving skills.

Potential challenges and drawbacks

There are a few potential challenges and drawbacks to be aware of when using the Six Step Problem Solving Model. It may require significant time and effort to complete all six steps, especially for complex problems. Additionally, this model assumes a linear problem-solving process, which may not always align with the dynamic and iterative nature of certain challenges. It is important to adapt the model as needed to accommodate different problem-solving contexts.

The Six Step Problem Solving Model provides individuals and teams with an effective framework for approaching and resolving problems. By defining the problem, analyzing it thoroughly, generating potential solutions, choosing the most suitable option, implementing it effectively, and continuously evaluating and adjusting strategies, you can overcome obstacles and achieve successful outcomes. Mastering this model requires critical thinking, effective communication, and a willingness to learn and improve. Apply the Six Step Problem Solving Model in your personal and professional life and witness the positive impact it can have on problem-solving processes.

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How to master communication in problem solving

May 11, 2023 The path from problem to solution is not linear. In fast-moving, complex times, decision-makers can’t effectively act alone when it comes to solving complicated workplace problems; diverse perspectives and rigorous debate are crucial to determining the best steps to take. What’s missing in many companies is the use of “contributory dissent,” or the capabilities required to engage in healthy if divergent discussions about critical business problems, write Ben Fletcher , Chris Hartley , Rupert Hoskin , and Dana Maor  in a recent article . Contributory dissent allows individuals and groups to air their differences in a way that moves the discussion toward a positive outcome and doesn’t undermine leadership or group cohesion. Check out these insights to learn how to establish cultures and structures where individuals and teams feel free to bring innovative—and often better—alternative solutions to the table, and dive into the best ways to master communication in problem solving.

Into all problem-solving, a little dissent must fall

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Listen with your head and heart: How Mars anchors on principles and people

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Six-Step Problem-Solving Model

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weblink:  http://www.yale.edu/bestpractices/resources/docs/problemsolvingmodel.pdf

This six-step model is designed for the workplace, but is easily adaptable to other settings such as schools and families.  It emphasizes the cyclical , continuous nature of the problem-solving process .  The model describes in detail the following steps:

Step One:   Define the Problem

Step Two:   Determine the Root Cause(s) of the Problem

Step Three:   Develop Alternative Solutions

Step Four:   Select a Solution

Step Five:   Implement the Solution

Step Six:   Evaluate the Outcome

Jet Aircraft Carriers Would Be Impossible Without These Genius Inventions

aircraft carrier on water

Famed 18th-century satirist Jonathan Swift was famously quoted as stating, "He was a bold man who first ate an oyster." The same should probably be said about the first pilot who first flew a jet plane off the deck of an aircraft carrier. Even more so for those who brought a jet in for landing, though "bold" may not quite cover the level of daring involved with landing an aircraft full of jet fuel on a moving target in the middle of the ocean. While the first pilots to fly off a boat did so in propeller-driven planes, the rise of jet-powered aircraft made flying to and from a carrier all the more perilous. 

In fact, it would be virtually impossible for a pilot to safely fly a jet off of or back onto the deck of an aircraft carrier without decades-worth of technological innovations for both the jet-powered planes and the cruise ship-dwarfing floating fortresses they fly to and from . Of course, arguments could be made that, among the many innovations that have allowed jet aircraft carriers to become a functional — if not a vital addition in the realm of modern warfare, the invention of the steam-powered catapult, the development of angled flight decks, and the development of the mirrored landing system were the real game-changers. Here's a look at three of the genius inventions that have helped make jet aircraft carriers possible.

Steam powered catapults help jets achieve necessary take off speeds

Despite jets being able to accelerate faster than propellor-driven planes, the aircraft taking flight in the years following World War II were struggling to generate enough upward thrust and airflow over the wings to comfortably take flight from the runways of most of the era's aircraft carriers. The issue was further compounded by the weight of jet-powered craft, which required the creation of far more thrust for flight than prop planes. As the U.S. Navy doubled down on the use of both jet planes and the carriers they'd need to launch them from sea, it couldn't solve the problem of getting the craft into the air safely.

Catapult devices had, of course, been in use on carriers prior to the jet age. But the hydraulic devices and their accompanying wires were not strong enough to aid in getting jets up to proper take off speeds, and the gun-styled catapults the Navy had developed were proving ineffective. Thankfully, the Royal British Air Force was working on the catapult problem on the other side of the pond and was already having success with their steam-powered build.

It was British engineer C.C. Deville who designed the catapult, developing a way for the device to generate power from the steam created by a carrier's boiler. The U.S. Navy was impressed by the design, borrowing the prototype to test out on its carriers. By 1954, the Navy had its own working model of the steam-powered catapult and was soon enough using the ingenious device to launch fighter jets from the decks of its own aircraft carriers.     

Angled flight decks made it easier for jets to land

These days, the U.S. Navy is catapulting its jets into flight with even more forward-thinking Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch Systems (EMALS), waving goodbye to steam builds with the launch of the U.S.S. Gerald R. Ford aircraft carrier. After solving the issue of getting jets into the air, engineers started tackling an equally complex problem of making it safer for them to land. 

Jets were, after all, considerably faster and heavier than the piston-driven builds that preceded them and coupled with a dramatically different swept-wing design, jets were landing harder and struggling to stop on straight flight decks. Those issues were, in turn, also making it harder for other planes to taxi, take off, and land. The problem required another elegant solution, the angled flight deck, an ingenious concept that ultimately led to a complete redesign of a carrier's flight deck. 

In principle, the concept was simple, with carriers now essentially boasting two separate runways, one straight for takeoff and another slightly longer one angled off the straightaway for landing. Both the U.S Navy and British Royal Navy were testing the so-called "axial deck" in the early 1950s, with both factions encouraged by what they were seeing, particularly as the radical design change would allow for planes to be taking off and landing simultaneously. With those jets landing at a completely different angle than planes taking off, sight lines became easier for approaching pilots to read, and with the landing strips also slightly lengthened, the possibility of dangerous miscues was greatly reduced for carriers in every naval fleet in the world .  

Mirror landing-signal systems essentially light a pilot's way home

Pilots have continued to navigate some of the world's most iconic jet planes up and back down again with ease. As you might've guessed, they've been aided in that endeavor by another ingenious invention, the mirror landing system. This is another major aircraft carrier innovation birthed by Britain's Royal Navy engineering crew circa the 1950s, and it's proved to be a legitimate life-saver for pilots and flight crews in the decades since its invention. 

Like the angled flight deck, the mirror landing system was an innovation born of necessity, and created in the need to help pilots safely guide their high-powered jets back to the deck of a carrier. As with the angled flight deck, the mirror landing system was also a relatively simple, if elegant, solution to a genuine problem. 

In essence, the mirror landing system is as simple as it sounds, with crews casting light into a large concave mirror on the flight deck to light a pilot's way home — a method that provides a clearer glide path to the flight deck than any other method to date. Relative simplicity aside, the mirror system would be nowhere near as beneficial, or even functional, without the aid of a gyroscope, which keeps the light itself on the correct glide path as the carrier rises and falls in the waves. The mirror landing system has proven so successful it's been adopted by carrier crews the world over. And yes, it is also, in fact, where the phrase "I have the ball" originated.

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able problem solving model launch

To Advance AI Efforts, Legal Professionals Launch Community on Open Source Platform HuggingFace

Lawyers, chief knowledge officers and data scientists are using HuggingFace to pull back the curtain on the artificial intelligence black box.

July 10, 2024 at 02:55 PM

5 minute read

Artificial Intelligence

Isha Marathe

Isha Marathe

Legal Tech Reporter

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In an effort to pull back the curtain on artificial intelligence’s metaphorical “black box,” Louis Brulé Naudet, a French data analyst and law student, started a community of legal professionals on the AI platform HuggingFace earlier this month.

The community, dubbed HF for Legal  with the mission subhead “Breaking the opacity of language models for legal professionals,” has since racked up 51 members—ranging from data scientists to legal tech entrepreneurs, to lawyers and law firm knowledge officers.

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