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Importance Of English Essay - 100, 200, 500 Words

Language is the primary asset and medium for conveying our ideas, thoughts and recognising others' perceptions and opinions. We all know that English is the global language to communicate internationally with different organisations and institutes. That’s why English is known as “Lingua Franca” which means "a mutual language of communication". It is used by speakers of different languages. Here are a few sample essays on the importance of English.

100 Words Essay on The Importance of English

200 words essay on the importance of english, 500 words essay on the importance of english.

Importance Of English Essay - 100, 200, 500 Words

English is the international standard language of communication. In our daily lives, it is impossible to communicate and expand our knowledge without English. The majority of books, magazines, journals and newspapers are printed in English . Most colleges and universities provide their courses in English. It is in fact quite difficult to access and use the internet without the English language. More job opportunities are available for a person who can speak English well. The English language also widens the scope of expanding the business at the International level. In the field of research, English plays a very crucial role. It gives the opportunity to communicate and collaborate with scientists from all over the world. USA, UK and Canada are among the top English-speaking countries.

Learning different languages enhances the analytical and cognitive abilities of the brain. English is a widely spoken language all over the world. In today’s era of Science and the Internet, it is very essential to learn English. Because it is not only the medium of communication but also the resource to get employment in many multinational companies and to get an education from different corners of the world. English is the mother Language of 53 countries and the second language of 118 countries . So it gives access to travel easily around these countries. Train timetables, street direction signs, and airport announcements are mostly available in the English Language.

For International Affairs, Diplomatic relationships, and conferences, English is the salient medium. Nowadays, there is a craze for English music and movies everywhere. World News and current affairs are largely accessible in the English Language. English is the medium of many exam papers worldwide. Primarily, English breaks the language barrier between different countries and gives access to meet new people, communicate with them and understand their cultures and heritages. Also, it is the medium to grow business companies at International levels. In this modern era, It is very important to learn the English language for self-growth.

There are more than 7100 languages spoken all around the world. English is one of the most spoken languages around the world. 67 countries and 27 non-sovereign entities consider English as their official language and it is spoken by more than 400 million people. The USA, the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada are some of the native English-speaking countries .

History of the English Language

The English language has its roots in the West Germanic language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons in early medieval England. It evolved over time, influenced by Latin and French, as well as other languages during periods of colonization and trade. During the Middle Ages, the English language was shaped by the Norman Conquest, which brought Norman French as the language of the ruling classes, and Old English evolved into Middle English. During the Renaissance, the Great Vowel Shift took place and Modern English began to emerge . In the 17th and 18th centuries, English became a global language through British imperialism, trade, and the spread of the British Empire. Today, English is widely spoken as a first or second language by over 1.5 billion people worldwide.

It would be a fact to say that the modern fast-growing life is impossible to live without the English Language. From education, job opportunities, media, entertainment, business, and travel every domain is incomplete without the English Language.

Education Sector | In schools, colleges majority of courses are provided in English. Most of the books and novels are printed in English. A heavy mass of the population is showing interest in studying English poems, stories, and novels, to learn about English literature. For studying abroad, English is very essential.

Job Opportunity | English widens the chances of getting a job in multinational companies. It gives the confidence to stand among people in corporate sectors. Career growth amplifies due to mastery of English language.

Entertainment | English music culture, movies, and shows are getting a heavy number of viewers every day. With increasing web channels, people are attracted towards English shows and music.

Media | World affairs, and news can be visualised through the English language. We can get news directly through the Internet from all over the world. Worldwide conferences among leaders occur in the English language.

Business | English generates more chances to grow business worldwide. That also helps to increase the economy of a country.

Travel | The English language pushes the barrier among countries so that people can travel to different countries without the fear of communication issues.

Personal Experience

During my Master's program, I was given the opportunity to participate in an industrial lab training program in Bangalore along with my classmates. Upon arrival, we encountered a communication issue as many locals in South Indian states either spoke their regional language or English, but not Hindi, which we were familiar with. This was a new experience for us as none of us had ever visited South Indian states before. Feeling nervous and puzzled about reaching our destination, we approached a few locals for directions. However, our attempts at communication were unsuccessful as they were unable to understand Hindi. We found ourselves in a bewildering situation and felt panicked.

Just then, a gentleman appeared and offered to help. He communicated with us in English and provided clear explanations of the route and destination. Thanks to his assistance, we were able to reach our destination smoothly. This experience taught us the importance of learning and improving our English-speaking skills, especially when travelling to new places where our native language may not be widely understood.

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

World Englishes: An Introduction

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What is “World Englishes?”

The term World Englishes  refers to the differences in the English language that emerge as it is used in various contexts across the world. Scholars of World Englishes identify the varieties of English used in different sociolinguistic contexts, analyzing their history, background, function, and influence.

Languages develop to fulfill the needs of the societies that use them. Because societies contain a diverse range of social needs, and because these needs can differ across cultures and geographies, multiple varieties of the English language exist . These include American English, British English, Australian English, Canadian English, Indian English, and so on.

While there is no single way for a new variety of English to emerge, its development can generally be described as a process of adaptation. A certain group of speakers take a familiar variety of English and adapt the features of that variety to suit the needs of their social context.

For example, a store selling alcoholic beverages is called a “liquor store” in American English, whereas it is called an “off-licence” in British English. The latter term derives from British law, which distinguishes between businesses licensed to sell alcoholic beverages for consumption off the premises and those licensed for consumption at the point of sale (i.e., bars and pubs).

Such variations do not occur in terms of word choice only. They happen also in terms of spelling, pronunciation, sentence structure, accent, and meaning. As new linguistic adaptations accumulate over time, a distinct variety of English eventually emerges. World Englishes scholars use a range of different criteria to recognize a new English variant as an established World English. These include the sociolinguistic context of its use, its range of functional domains, and the ease with which new speakers can become acculturated to it, among other criteria. 

The Origin of World Englishes

This section, which is not meant to be exhaustive, provides a simplified narrative of how World Englishes emerged as a field of inquiry.

Linguist Braj Kachru (1932-2016) publishes his first journal article, entitled “The Indianness in Indian English.” In the article, he lays the theoretical groundwork for the idea of World Englishes by interpreting how English is nativized in India, delineating some of its unique sociological and cultural aspects, and showing that “Indian English” is a unique variety of English which is neither an American or British English.

Kachru formally introduces the term “World Englishes” at the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) Conference along with the global profile of English. Later, he proposes the three concentric circles model. Both papers are subsequently published.

This image shows Kachru's three concentric circle model of English. The inner circle represents countries in the anglosphere where English is the primary language. The middle circle represents countries where English has a colonial history. The expanding outer circle represents countries where English is spoken but does not have a colonial history or official language status.

Kachru's three concentric circle model. Image c/o  Wikimedia Commons  (Creative Commons 4.0 License).

The inner circle  refers to the countries where English is used as the primary language, such as the USA, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia.

The outer/middle circle  denotes those countries where English usage has some colonial history. This includes nations such as India, Bangladesh, Ghana, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Zambia.

The expanding circle  includes countries where English is spoken but where it does not necessarily have a colonial history or primary/official language status. This includes nations such as China, Japan, South Korea, Egypt, Nepal, Indonesia, Israel, Korea, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, USSR, and Zimbabwe. Any country where English is regularly spoken (even in limited contexts—e.g., for international business) that does not fall under the first two categories is considered to be in the expanding circle.

The boundaries between outer and expanding circles can be blurred as the users of English in any of these specific countries may fluctuate because of the demographic shifts, economic motivations, and language education policy.  

Kachru argues that it is important to view each variety of English in its own historical, political, sociolinguistic, and literary contexts. This concentric circle model does not only show the wide spread of English across the world, but also emphasizes “the concept of pluralism, linguistic heterogeneity, cultural diversity and the different theoretical and methodological foundations for teaching and research in English” (1984, p. 26).

Kachru  also defines the quality of “ nativeness ” in World Englishes “in terms of both its functional domains and range, and its depth in social penetration and resultant acculturation” (1997, p. 68). A community acquires “native” English-speaking status as it uses English in broader a greater number of societal contexts. This process, however, is shaped by the historical role of English in the community (e.g., as the language of a colonizing force). It is this interaction between functionality and history that leads to the nativization of English in a particular society or population group. Consequently, Kachru argues, the English language belongs not only to its native speakers but also to its various non-native users throughout the world. 

Larry E. Smith contributes a chapter titled, “Spread of English and Issues of Intelligibility” to The Other Tongue: English Across Cultures , edited by Braj B. Kachru. Smith, in this chapter, mentions that since the global spread of English has been very rapid by historical standards, not all these English varieties will necessarily be intelligible to each other. Thus, he argues that the idea of English’s “intelligibility” should be thought of as a matter of its ability to be understood by a speaker and listener within the same speech community, rather than its degree to be understood solely by native speakers of English. He also proposes the following three terms to understand the interaction between speaker and listener: 1) intelligibility (word/utterance recognition), 2) comprehensibility (word/utterance meaning, or “locutionary force”), and 3) interpretability (meaning behind word/utterance, “illocutionary force”).

Multilingual Pedagogy and World Englishes

Linguistic Variety, Global Society

Multilingual Pedagogy and World Englishes

World Englishes: What Are They?

“Diversity has become the marker of postmodern life.”

Ana Maria Wetzl

importance of world englishes essay

WEs, in addition to other fields of inquiry such as English as a Second Language (ESL), English as a Foreign Language (EFL), and English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), is richly multidisciplinary. It bridges fields such as postcolonial theory, applied linguistics, creative writing, composition pedagogy, and others.

In addition to this interdisciplinary potential, we are interested in how WEs approaches enrich the Writing and Communication Program’s commitment to student learning through its multimodal approach to communication. With their focus on how users negotiate or “shuttle between” multiple languages and cultures in specific contexts, WEs are deeply rhetorical, and knowledge of English varieties across communities, professions, regions, or countries is invaluable to the citizens of our increasingly global society.

importance of world englishes essay

The resources appearing on this website are part of the World Englishes Committee’s concerted effort to participate in that initiative. The resources on this site are not intended to replace “traditional” resources for working with multilingual communicators, such as information about grammar and academic writing genres, but rather function in a supplemental, facilitating role. Instructors will also find this site helpful for designing composition courses about WEs as a topic of inquiry.

This linked Prezi touches on some of the fundamental concepts of World Englishes and the contributions of scholars in the field. It is intended to be a teaching tool for instructors hoping to infuse their classes with a heightened appreciation for World Englishes and a more accurate sense of how scholars perceive the role of English as a truly global phenomenon.

As translingual composition scholar S. Canagarajah observes, both students and teachers can benefit from WEs approaches that:

1. enrich our understanding of how even monolingual U.S. English speakers “shuttle between” different Englishes on a daily basis as we move across different communities and audiences (593) 2. help us understand how “expert” users of one English (ex. American academic English) might be “novices” in another English (ex. Sri Lankan English)

In short, WEs encourages an exploration of the rich linguistic diversity that English–and languages in general–offers and the open-mindedness and reciprocal understanding that such explorations cultivate in those willing to put forth the effort.


Canagarajah, A. Suresh. “The Place of World Englishes in Composition: Pluralization Continued.”  College Composition and Communication , vol. 57, no. 4, 2006, pp. 586–619.  JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/20456910.

Jenkins, Jennifer. “A Reader Responds to J. Jenkins’s ‘Current Perspectives on Teaching World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca’: The Author Replies.”  TESOL Quarterly , vol. 41, no. 2, 2007, pp. 414–415.  JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/40264365.

Seidlhofer, Barbara. “Common Ground and Different Realities: World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca.” World Englishes,  vol. 28, no. 2, 2009, pp. 236-45. Online Wiley Library , doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2009.01592.x.

Wetzl, Ana Maria. “World Englishes in the Mainstream Composition Course: Undergraduate Students Respond to WE Writing.”  Research in the Teaching of English , vol. 48, no. 2, 2013, 204-27. JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/24398655.

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Essay on English as a Global Language

Phonics Book

500 Words Essay On English as a Global Language

A global language is one that is spoken and understood at an international level by a wide variety of people. Moreover, no language in the world better fits this description than the English language. This essay on English as a global language will shed more light on this issue.

essay on english as a global language

                                                                                                  Essay on English as a Global Language

Why English is a Global Language

When it comes to languages, one can make a strong argument that a strong link exists between dominance and cultural power. Furthermore, the main factor that the languages become popular is due to a powerful power-base, whether economic or political or military.

The derivation of the English language took place from languages like French, Latin, German, and other European languages. This can be a reason why many Europeans don’t find English a difficult language to learn. Furthermore, linguists argue whether the simplicity of the English language is the main reason for it becoming a global language.

The Latin script of the English language appears less complicated for people to recognize and learn. Also, the pronunciation of the English language is not as complex as other languages like Korean or Turkish for example.

Generally, the difficulty level of a language varies from person to person and it also depends on the culture to which one may belong. For example, a Korean person would find less difficulty in mastering the Japanese language in comparison to a German person. This is because of the close proximity of the Korean and Japanese cultures.

Due to the massive British colonial conquests , no culture is in complete oblivion of the English language or words. As such, English is a language that should not appear as too alien or strange to any community. Consequently, learning English is not such big of a deal for most people as they can find a certain level of familiarity with the language.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

The Effectiveness of the English Language

English is a very effective language and this is evident due to the presence of various native and non-native speakers on a global scale. Furthermore, according to statistics, one-fourth of the world is either fluent in the English language or content with it. While it’s true that the number of native Mandarin speakers is the greatest in the world, Mandarin is not the global language due to its complex spellings, grammar , and letter system.

The English language, on the other hand, does not suffer from such complexity problems. Furthermore, the English language has a lot of words and synonyms to express something. As such, any word or its meaning can be expressed with a high level of accuracy.

Conclusion of the Essay on English as a Global Language

English is certainly the most widely spoken language in the world by far. On a global scale, English has the most number of speakers, who speak English either as a first or second language. Without a doubt, no other language in the world can come close to English in terms of its immense popularity.

FAQs For Essay on English as a Global Language

Question 1: Why English is referred to as the global language?

Answer 1:  Many consider English as a global language because it is the one language that the majority of the population in almost every region of the world can speak and understand. Furthermore, the language enjoys worldwide acceptance and usage by every nation of the world. Therefore, it is an extremely essential global language.

Question 2: How English became the global language in the world?

Answer 2: By the late 18th century, the British Empire had made a lot of colonies. Moreover, they had established their geopolitical dominance all over the world. Consequently, the English language quickly spread in the British colonies.

There was also the contribution of technology, science, diplomacy, commerce, art, and formal education which led to English becoming a truly global language of the world.

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World Englishes in Academic Writing: Exploring Markers’ Responses

  • First Online: 07 December 2018

Cite this chapter

importance of world englishes essay

  • Toni Dobinson 20 ,
  • Paul Mercieca 20 &
  • Sarah Kent 20  

Part of the book series: Multilingual Education ((MULT,volume 30))

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Widening participation in higher education and inclusivity policies have meant more university students with different cultural schemas for writing and varying levels of proficiency in academic English. In particular, international and migrant students may bring with them their own legitimate varieties of English. The authors of this chapter draw on a small project conducted at one Australian university which sought to investigate the use of World Englishes (WEs) in the written work of students who speak English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) and the feedback given to these students by lecturers across disciplines. Findings revealed limited occurrences of features that could definitely be linked with WEs, particularly in the area of lexis. Likewise, there were few examples of lecturer feedback on the students’ use of WEs or WEs picked up as errors due to the use of standardised rubrics which did not have this capacity. Discussion points to the need for greater transcultural competence amongst academics in the tertiary sector against a backdrop of increased student numbers and shorter feedback turnaround times. It also suggests the need for students to be able to identify the boundary between dominant discourses in their disciplines and ways to negotiate standard forms to include their own language identities.

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Dobinson, T., Mercieca, P., Kent, S. (2019). World Englishes in Academic Writing: Exploring Markers’ Responses. In: Dobinson, T., Dunworth, K. (eds) Literacy Unbound: Multiliterate, Multilingual, Multimodal. Multilingual Education, vol 30. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01255-7_2

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British Council

In our rapidly changing world what is the future of the English language?

By mina patel, assessment research manager, british council, 18 april 2023 - 16:54.

Woman sits in a library with shelves of text books behind her. She is holding a book call 'How English works'.

English is one of the most spoken languages in the world, but what will English look like in the future? Here Mina Patel, one of the authors of the new British Council publication ‘The Future of English: Global Perspectives’, looks at how English, its teaching, assessment and use in business will be affected in a rapidly changing world.

People ask: what’s so important about English? The answer is simple, English connects people and changes lives. English changed my life. I arrived in England at the age of four as a refugee from Uganda. I couldn’t speak a word of English. Today I am one of the authors of the British Council’s newest publication, The Future of English: Global Perspectives. I was lucky. I was inspired at school, had wonderful teachers, and they instilled in me a passion for learning and teaching. I have been in English language education for many years and English has connected me to thousands of people around the world. 

The Future of English: Global Perspectives is part of a long-term research programme, which identifies key trends that will define the role of English as a global language in the coming decade. It also examines the issues and opportunities for countries around the world in achieving their goals for the use of English. 

The publication describes the programme and presents the findings from discussions with 92 policy makers and influencers from 49 countries and territories during 14 roundtables, about what they see as the future of English. From these conversations, eight themes emerged, themes that we believe will have an impact on the future of English in the coming years. So, what are the global perspectives about the future of English and what does the data tell us?

Will English remain the world’s most sought-after language?

For the foreseeable future English will remain the dominant global lingua franca (a language used by people with different native languages to communicate with each other), but the role it plays in the lives of individuals or in policies will begin to change. 

Numbers of learners will remain stable or rise in the next ten years. The main drivers for this are education, employment, technology and global mobility. Employers, parents and learners themselves are driving the need for English language education. They see it as a necessity for success in life, learning and employment. 

What role will English play in our multilingual world?

Multilingualism is the norm in most contexts around the world. Exploration, colonialisation, migration, and globalisation have all contributed to today’s multilingual world. 

English is often one of the languages used in multilingual situations where everyday communication is managed by individuals using their full range of languages organically and fluidly – a practice known as ‘translanguaging’.

One implication for English is that it increasingly ‘belongs’ (in the sense that any language can belong to anybody) to whoever uses it, in whatever form, to interact successfully in any given context. 

What is the future of English as a medium of education?

English as a medium of education (EME), also called English as a medium of instruction is when students are taught subjects in English, regardless of their first language. It is hugely popular in some contexts and is driven by governments and parents that see it as a good way to achieve fluency in English, so improving the chances of students getting a good job in the future.  

Universities which teach courses in English - with lectures, course materials and tutorials all given in English - are now very common. Primary and secondary schools where English is the main language of teaching and learning are also becoming more popular.  However, EME is a topic of much discussion and debate.

How will teachers remain relevant in future English language learning systems?

Our data tells us that teachers are very much at the heart of the teaching and learning process and the education system. Regardless of the technological shifts during the Pandemic, teachers are very important. However, in some places in the world, there are concerns about capacity with two main questions being asked. Are there enough English teachers and are there enough skilled English teachers?

Linked to this is teacher motivation and well-being. If English is considered a valuable and important skill for a nation’s educational, professional and economic success, then it follows that English language teachers should be looked after, supported, developed and rewarded to reflect the significance of their contribution to society. 

Public and private English language provision - who has the answers?

This is an interesting question, and although private language education provision can be better, our participants were concerned about the lack of monitoring and evaluation of private language provision.  

That said, public-sector provision of English language teaching is inadequate in many countries, often featuring inappropriate or outdated curricula.

It is likely that the answers to better quality provision in both sectors lie in greater cross-sector communication and collaboration.

Can English language assessment meet stakeholders’ changing needs?

People require different types of proficiency for different tasks in different contexts. This has implications for teaching, learning and assessment (TLA), particularly as we expect that aligning these components will continue to be of interest in the future.

English is no longer seen in isolation. Instead, it is seen as part of a range of knowledge, skills and expertise, captured by the concept of 21st-century skills and required for a dynamic globalised world. This presents two challenges for current assessment practices:

• Assessment needs to be more creative and innovative to develop and measure individuals more holistically.

• Language Assessment Literacy (LAL) needs to be considered more seriously and concepts of LAL need to adapt to be relevant in this changing assessment landscape.

Can technology narrow the equity gap in English language education?

While there are significant advantages to using technology to aid learning, both in and outside the classroom, these advantages have not always been built upon. This is because uptake and success depend on several factors:

• Access to hardware, such as TV, radio, computers, smartphones and the Internet.

• Teacher skills and motivation to support learning.

• Stakeholder support (within the education system and at home).

• Inclusion in modern curricula of recognition of informal learning (typically online).

The reality is that in many cases there are significant disparities in access across communities. This ‘digital divide’ can have social, educational and economic repercussions for those affected.

It is important to note that in many developing or rural places, technology doesn’t just mean mobile devices, it also means televisions and radios.

To what extent is employment driving the future of English?

The world of work has changed. Globalisation, together with advances in technology, has changed the way many companies operate and the skills required by employees. Previously technical skills in specific areas were highly sought after, now employers are looking for ‘all-round’ employees who can combine technical expertise with additional skills, including teamworking, problem-solving, negotiation, intercultural awareness and digital literacy. 

Multilingual and multicultural workforces are not uncommon, whether people are working remotely or in the same location. English is often the lingua franca and sometimes the official language of business as chosen by organisations. The very concept of international, dispersed teams changes and expands the parameters of English for work. 

English is becoming a requirement for all sectors of industry. At all levels in organisations and all over the world, English at work is no longer only for professional jobs or senior management roles – it has increasingly become necessary for lower-skilled jobs in the tourism and retail sectors. As cited in a previous British Council study, ‘even if English is one of the working languages in a major multinational company, the English proficiency requirement differs from role to role’ 

All these factors have led to the notion of proficiency, as we know it, being re-defined.

As the data shows, the future of English is interesting, dynamic and contextual but there are still many questions. The future of English programme is an invitation for colleagues and partners to collaborate to try and answer some of these questions.  We’re living in exciting times, change is the norm, but for the foreseeable future, English will continue to connect people and change lives. 

Graphic with lilac background, abstract curved shape in dark purple and vermillion, diamond shaped photo of young people chatting. Text says: The Future of English: Global Perspectives #FutureofEnglish

Find out more about our Future of English programme and download a free copy of the book Future of English: Global Perspectives.

You might also be interested in:.

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Guiding Master

The Importance of English in a Globalized World

In today’s fast-paced and connected world, language is the key to unlocking opportunities, fostering connections, and bridging cultural gaps. Among the many languages ​​of the world, English stands out not only as a language but also as a global phenomenon. Find out the importance of English, in this article…

The scope of English spans continents, industries, and communication channels, making it a modern lingua franca. Whether you’re a student, working professional, aspiring entrepreneur , or just a global citizen, understanding the deep meaning of the English language is important.

It’s a life-changing skill that opens doors you didn’t even know existed. In Exploring the Importance of English, we explore why mastering English can be a life-changing undertaking and can shape your future in ways you never imagined.

The Importance of English

The importance of English in today’s world cannot be overemphasized. English has evolved from one language among many to become a universal language spoken and understood by people of various linguistic backgrounds around the world.

Here are the main reasons why English is the most important in India and all over the world…

1. Global Communication

English serves as the primary language in international business, diplomacy, science, and technology. It enables people from different countries to communicate effectively and understand each other.

2. Education

Many of the world’s leading universities and academic journals use English as their first language. Knowledge of English is often required for higher education and research opportunities abroad.

3. Career Opportunities

Fluency in English is a valuable skill in the job market. It opens up a wider range of employment opportunities, especially in multinational companies and industries where English is the primary language of communication.

4. Access to Information

A significant portion of the world’s information is available in English. Your ability to understand and use English gives you access to a wealth of knowledge, including books, articles, websites, and research.

5. Cultural Exchange

English is a means of cultural exchange. This allows people to appreciate literature, movies, music, and art from all over the world. It also promotes cross-cultural understanding and tolerance.

English is often the common language in the global tourism industry. Knowing English will make traveling and navigating English-speaking countries more comfortable.

7. Science and Technology

English is the predominant language for scientific research and innovation. Many groundbreaking discoveries and inventions are documented in English.

8. Internet and Technology

Much of the online content, such as websites, social media platforms, and software, is in English. This is especially important in the digital age.

9. Globalization

As the world becomes more connected, English plays a vital role in facilitating international trade and cultural exchange.

10. Personal Growth

Learning English gives you access to a wider range of ideas, perspectives, and experiences, which can facilitate your personal growth.

READ |  Guide to Introduce Yourself in English Interview

English is more than just a language, it’s the gateway to the world. Knowledge of the English language enables individuals to connect with people around the world, access knowledge, and opportunities, and participate in global communities.

Whether for education, career advancement, or personal enrichment, understanding the importance of English in today’s connected world is essential.

The Significance of English Language

The significance of English in today’s world cannot be overemphasized. It becomes a universal language and facilitates communication across borders and cultures.

Knowledge of English is a prerequisite for success in international business, science, and academia. It provides access to a wealth of information and promotes education and personal growth.

Moreover, English is the language of technology and the internet, enabling global connectivity. Bridge cultural understanding gaps and improve cross-cultural communication.

In our rapidly globalizing world, English is more than just a language. It’s a tool for education, career advancement, and opportunities that open doors to meaningful connections.

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How the English Language Conquered the World

importance of world englishes essay

By Amy Chua

  • Jan. 18, 2022

THE RISE OF ENGLISH Global Politics and the Power of Language By Rosemary Salomone

“Every time the question of language surfaces,” the Italian Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci wrote, “in one way or another a series of other problems are coming to the fore,” like “the enlargement of the governing class,” the “relationships between the governing groups and the national–popular mass” and the fight over “cultural hegemony.” Vindicating Gramsci, Rosemary Salomone’s “The Rise of English” explores the language wars being fought all over the world, revealing the political, economic and cultural stakes behind these wars, and showing that so far English is winning. It is a panoramic, endlessly fascinating and eye-opening book, with an arresting fact on nearly every page.

English is the world’s most widely spoken language, with some 1.5 billion speakers even though it’s native for fewer than 400 million. English accounts for 60 percent of world internet content and is the lingua franca of pop culture and the global economy. All 100 of the world’s most influential science journals publish in English. “Across Europe, close to 100 percent of students study English at some point in their education.”

Even in France, where countering the hegemony of English is an official obsession, English is winning. French bureaucrats constantly try to ban Anglicisms “such as gamer , dark web and fake news ,” Salomone writes, but their edicts are “quietly ignored.” Although a French statute called the Toubon Law “requires radio stations to play 35 percent French songs,” “the remaining 65 percent is flooded with American music.” Many young French artists sing in English. By law, French schoolchildren must study a foreign language, and while eight languages are available, 90 percent choose English.

Salomone, the Kenneth Wang professor of law at St. John’s University School of Law, tends to glide over why English won, simply stating that English is the language of neoliberalism and globalization, which seems to beg the question. But she is meticulous and nuanced in chronicling the battles being fought over language policy in countries ranging from Italy to Congo, and analyzing the unexpected winners and losers.

Exactly whom English benefits is complicated. Obviously it benefits native Anglophones. Americans, with what Salomone calls their “smug monolingualism,” are often blissfully unaware of the advantage they have because of the worldwide dominance of their native tongue. English also benefits globally connected market-dominant minorities in non-Western countries, like English-speaking whites in South Africa or the Anglophone Tutsi elite in Rwanda. In former French colonies like Algeria and Morocco, shifting from French to English is seen not just as the key to modernization, but as a form of resistance against their colonial past.

In India, the role of English is spectacularly complex. The ruling Hindu nationalist Indian People’s Party prefers to depict English as the colonizers’ language, impeding the vision of an India unified by Hindu culture and Hindi. By contrast, for speakers of non-Hindi languages and members of lower castes, English is often seen as a shield against majority domination. Some reformers see English as an “egalitarian language” in contrast to Indian languages, which carry “the legacy of caste.” English is also a symbol of social status. As a character in a recent Bollywood hit says: “English isn’t just a language in this country. It’s a class.” Meanwhile, Indian tiger parents, “from the wealthiest to the poorest,” press for their children to be taught in English, seeing it as the ticket to upward mobility.

Salomone’s South Africa chapter is among the most interesting in the book. Along with Afrikaans, English is one of South Africa’s 11 official languages, and even though only 9.6 percent of the population speak English as their first language, it “dominates every sector,” including government, the internet, business, broadcasting, the press, street signs and popular music. But English is not only the language of South Africa’s commercial and political elite. It was also the language of Black resistance to the Afrikaner-dominated apartheid regime, giving it enormous symbolic importance. Thus, recent years have seen poor and working-class Black activists pushing for English-only instruction in universities, even though many of them are not proficient in the language. Opponents of English, however, argue that shifting away from Afrikaans instruction disproportionately hurts the poor of all races, including lower-income Blacks, whites and mixed-race “colored” South Africans. Meanwhile, younger “colored activists are challenging the English-Afrikaans binary and exploring alternate forms of expression, like AfriKaaps,” a form of Afrikaans promoted by hip-hop artists. For now, though, “the constitutional commitment to language equality in South Africa is aspirational at best,” and “English reigns supreme for its economic power.”

Learning English pays, with “positive labor market returns across the globe.” Throughout academia today, even in Europe and Asia, “the rule no longer is ‘Publish or perish’ but rather ‘Publish in English … or perish.’” In the Middle East, “employees who were more proficient in English earned salaries from 5 percent (Tunisia) to a stunning 200 percent (Iraq) more than their non-English-speaking counterparts.” In Argentina, 90 percent of employers “believed that English was an indispensable skill for managers and directors.” In every country she surveys, higher income is correlated with English proficiency.

Salomone concludes with a brief discussion of American monolingualism, describing the waves of political angst over threats to English as the national language, while advocating for more multilingualism in Anglophone countries. Beyond the economic benefits of speaking multiple languages in a globalized world, Salomone cites studies that show learning new languages improves overall cognitive function. In addition, she argues, “observing life through a wide linguistic and cultural lens leads to greater creativity and innovation.”

“The Rise of English” has its weaknesses. Most important, the book lacks any clear thesis beyond suggesting “language is political; it’s complicated.” In addition, the book doesn’t tie together or reflect on the divergence of its case studies; I frequently found myself wondering why the experiences of (say) France or Italy or Denmark were different, and what we should take from that fact.

Finally, the book offers no clear evaluative framework. Salomone focuses primarily on straightforward economic factors (which often boil down to the same thing: access to global markets), but there is a smattering of underdeveloped discussion of other, more elusive themes too, like race, equity, colonialism and imperialism. This hodgepodge of incommensurables may trace back to the book’s origins. In her preface, Salomone writes, “My initial plan was to write a book on the value of language in the global economy.” But “the deeper I dug … the more I viewed the issues through a wider global lens and the clearer the connections to educational equity, identity and democratic participation appeared.” Unfortunately, she never quite gets a handle on these deeper issues.

Will Mandarin, with its 1.11 billion speakers, eventually replace English as the world’s lingua franca? Will Google or Microsoft Translate moot the issue? Salomone’s painstakingly thorough book addresses these questions too (concluding probably not).

The justifications for English — or any language — as a global lingua franca are based primarily in economic efficiency. By contrast, the reasons to protect local languages mostly sound in different registers — the importance of cultural heritage; the geopolitics of resistance to great powers; the value of Indigenous art; the beauty of idiosyncratic words in other languages that describe all the different types of snow or the different flavors of melancholia. As Gramsci reminded us, the question of who speaks what language invariably puts all this on the table.

Amy Chua is the John M. Duff Jr. professor of law at Yale Law School and the author of “World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability” and “Political Tribes: Group Instinct and the Fate of Nations.”

THE RISE OF ENGLISH Global Politics and the Power of Language By Rosemary Salomone 488 pp. Oxford University Press. $35.

Mr Greg's English Cloud

Short Essay: Importance Of English

In a world increasingly connected by globalization, the English language holds a special place as a primary medium of international communication. Writing an essay on the importance of English can provide insights into its role in global business, technology, science, and cultural exchange. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to craft a compelling short essay on this topic.

Table of Contents

Title and Introduction

Title : Choose a title that is both informative and catchy, such as “English: The Bridge to Global Unity”.

Introduction : Start with an engaging hook to draw in the reader. This could be an interesting statistic, a quote from a renowned linguist, or a brief anecdote about how English facilitated a significant international agreement. Briefly outline the prevalence of English and its role as a global lingua franca. Conclude the introduction with a thesis statement that highlights the main points you will discuss, such as its utility in global business, education, and as a cultural connector.

Body of the Essay

Global Business and Economy :

  • Paragraph 1 : Discuss how English serves as the de facto language of global commerce. Highlight how multinational corporations, international trade negotiations, and global finance sectors predominantly use English. Provide examples such as the use of English in major business hubs like New York, London, and Hong Kong.

Science and Technology :

  • Paragraph 2 : Explain the significance of English in science and technology. Most scientific research, particularly in top journals, is published in English. Discuss how this dominance facilitates wider dissemination and collaboration in research across different countries.

Education and Scholarship :

  • Paragraph 3 : Elaborate on the role of English in education and academic scholarship. Many countries offer English-medium instruction in schools and universities to prepare students for global opportunities. Cite examples of countries where English is not the first language, yet plays a crucial role in educational systems.

Cultural Exchange and Communication :

  • Paragraph 4 : Describe how English acts as a bridge in cultural exchange and international relations. Discuss the use of English in international media, entertainment, and the internet. Mention how English allows diverse cultures to share ideas, literature, and art forms globally.

Summarize the key points discussed, reinforcing the thesis about the importance of English in a globalized world. Emphasize how English not only connects diverse populations but also opens up opportunities for growth and understanding. Conclude with a reflective thought on the future of English and its evolving role in the world.

Importance Of English Essay Example #1

English, as a global language, holds immense importance in today’s interconnected world. It serves as a common medium of communication, bridging cultural and linguistic barriers. Understanding the significance of English is crucial for individuals seeking to navigate the realms of education, career opportunities, cultural exchange, and global understanding.

In the realm of education, English plays a pivotal role. It has become the language of instruction in many schools, colleges, and universities worldwide. Proficiency in English enables students to access a vast array of educational resources, including academic literature, research papers, and online courses. Moreover, it opens doors to study opportunities abroad, where renowned institutions often use English as the primary language of instruction. By mastering English, individuals can expand their intellectual horizons and enhance their educational prospects.

English proficiency also offers a multitude of career opportunities. In today’s global job market, many industries require employees to possess strong English language skills. Whether it is in the fields of business, tourism, technology, or international relations, English fluency is often a prerequisite for professional success. Proficient English speakers can collaborate with colleagues from different countries, attract international clients, and participate in global business networks. English proficiency not only broadens career options but also increases employability in a competitive job market.

Furthermore, English serves as a catalyst for cultural exchange. It facilitates communication between people from diverse linguistic backgrounds, enabling them to share ideas, experiences, and knowledge. English is the language of international conferences, academic journals, and diplomatic negotiations. It allows for the exchange of literature, movies, music, and popular culture, fostering mutual understanding and appreciation among different cultures. Through English, individuals can explore and connect with the rich cultural heritage of English-speaking countries and beyond.

Learning English also promotes personal development. It enhances cognitive skills, critical thinking, and problem-solving abilities. Exposure to English literature, films, and media exposes individuals to different perspectives and ideas, broadening their horizons. English proficiency empowers individuals to express themselves effectively and confidently, enabling them to engage in meaningful conversations and contribute to discussions on a global scale.

While acknowledging the importance of English, it is crucial to recognize and preserve linguistic diversity. Efforts should be made to promote the learning of local languages and respect the cultural heritage they represent. However, the practical advantages of English as a global language cannot be ignored.

In conclusion, the importance of English cannot be overstated. It serves as a fundamental tool for communication, education, career advancement, cultural exchange, and personal growth. Proficiency in English opens doors to a world of opportunities, enabling individuals to connect with people from diverse backgrounds and access a wealth of knowledge. Embracing the importance of English is essential for individuals seeking to thrive in our increasingly interconnected and globalized society.

Importance Of English Essay Example #2

English has emerged as a dominant global language, playing a crucial role in our increasingly interconnected and globalized world. Its importance transcends borders, enabling communication, fostering cultural exchange, and providing access to educational and career opportunities. Understanding the significance of English is essential for individuals seeking to navigate today’s global landscape.

Firstly, English serves as a universal language of communication. It bridges the linguistic divide, allowing people from different countries and cultures to connect and understand one another. English proficiency enables individuals to communicate effectively in international settings, whether it be for business transactions, academic collaborations, or leisure travel. In an era where cross-cultural interactions are commonplace, English acts as the lingua franca, breaking down barriers and facilitating meaningful dialogue.

Secondly, English is of paramount importance in the realm of education. It has become the language of instruction in many academic institutions worldwide. Proficiency in English opens doors to a vast array of educational resources, including textbooks, research papers, and online courses. It also provides access to scholarship opportunities and study programs offered by renowned universities in English-speaking countries. By mastering English, individuals can enhance their educational prospects and participate in the global academic community.

Moreover, English proficiency offers a multitude of career advantages. In today’s competitive job market, many employers require strong English language skills. Proficiency in English expands career opportunities, particularly in multinational corporations, international organizations, and industries that operate on a global scale. English fluency enables effective communication with colleagues, clients, and business partners from different countries. It enhances one’s employability and increases the chances of career advancement in an interconnected world.

Furthermore, English acts as a gateway to global culture and knowledge. It is the language of global media, entertainment, and the internet. Access to English-language literature, films, music, and online resources allows individuals to engage with diverse perspectives and ideas. English proficiency enables individuals to participate in cultural exchanges, appreciate different art forms, and gain a deeper understanding of the world around them. It broadens horizons and promotes cultural awareness and sensitivity.

While acknowledging the importance of English, it is crucial to maintain and value linguistic diversity. Local languages and cultures should be preserved and celebrated, as they are integral to our collective heritage. Efforts should be made to promote bilingualism and multilingualism, encouraging individuals to learn English while also preserving their native languages.

In conclusion, the significance of English in a globalized world cannot be overstated. It serves as a language of communication, education, career advancement, and cultural exchange. Proficiency in English enables individuals to connect with people from diverse backgrounds, access knowledge and opportunities, and participate in global conversations. Embracing the importance of English empowers individuals to navigate the complexities of our interconnected world and thrive in a globalized society.

Importance Of English Essay Example #3

English, as a language of immense power and influence, holds a significant place in today’s world. Its global reach and widespread usage make it indispensable for communication, education, trade, and cultural exchange. Understanding the power and influence of the English language is essential for individuals seeking to navigate the complexities of our interconnected and globalized society.

One of the key reasons for the importance of English is its status as a lingua franca. It serves as a common language that connects people from different linguistic backgrounds. English proficiency enables individuals to communicate with ease, both domestically and internationally. Whether it is for business negotiations, academic collaborations, or personal interactions, English acts as a bridge, facilitating effective communication and fostering understanding among diverse cultures and communities.

Furthermore, English has become the language of international business and commerce. In an increasingly globalized economy, knowledge of English is often a prerequisite for professional success. Many multinational corporations conduct their operations in English, and proficiency in the language opens doors to a plethora of career opportunities. From job interviews to networking events, English fluency is highly valued and can significantly enhance employability and career prospects.

The influence of the English language extends beyond the realm of business. It is the language of science, technology, and innovation. A significant portion of scientific research and academic publications is conducted and published in English. Access to English-language resources and journals is crucial for staying updated with the latest advancements in various fields. By mastering English, individuals can actively contribute to global knowledge exchange and participate in cutting-edge research and development.

English also plays a pivotal role in the realm of education. Proficiency in English provides access to high-quality educational resources, including textbooks, scholarly articles, and online courses. It allows individuals to pursue higher education in prestigious institutions around the world that offer programs in English. Additionally, English proficiency enhances academic performance, as it improves critical thinking, analytical skills, and the ability to articulate ideas effectively.

Culturally, the English language has a profound impact. It serves as a vehicle for the dissemination of literature, films, music, and popular culture. English-language literature, such as the works of Shakespeare, Dickens, and Austen, has influenced and shaped literary traditions worldwide. English-language films and music have global reach, transcending borders and cultures. By understanding English, individuals can engage with diverse cultural expressions and participate in the global exchange of ideas and creativity.

While recognizing the power and influence of English, it is important to promote linguistic diversity and preserve local languages and cultures. Multilingualism should be encouraged to ensure that the richness and diversity of languages are maintained. Efforts should be made to provide equal access to education and resources in different languages, ensuring that linguistic diversity flourishes alongside the prominence of English.

In conclusion, the power and influence of the English language cannot be underestimated. It serves as a global language of communication, trade, education, and culture. Proficiency in English opens doors to opportunities, facilitates international interactions, and enhances personal and professional growth. By embracing the power of English while promoting linguistic diversity, we can navigate the complexities of our interconnected world and foster a truly inclusive and globally aware society.

Final Writing Tips

  • Be Concise : Given the short essay format, focus on making each paragraph idea-rich but succinct.
  • Use Examples : Concrete examples enhance credibility and make abstract ideas more relatable.
  • Stay Objective : While highlighting the importance, acknowledge the diversity of global languages and the importance of multilingualism.
  • Proofread : Ensure clarity and coherence in your writing, and check for grammatical accuracy.
  • Engage Your Audience : Write in a way that would interest someone unfamiliar with the topic by explaining jargon and providing context for your points.

About Mr. Greg

Mr. Greg is an English teacher from Edinburgh, Scotland, currently based in Hong Kong. He has over 5 years teaching experience and recently completed his PGCE at the University of Essex Online. In 2013, he graduated from Edinburgh Napier University with a BEng(Hons) in Computing, with a focus on social media.

Mr. Greg’s English Cloud was created in 2020 during the pandemic, aiming to provide students and parents with resources to help facilitate their learning at home.

Whatsapp: +85259609792

[email protected]

importance of world englishes essay

  • Importance Of English Language Essay

Importance of English Language Essay

500+ words essay on the importance of the english language.

English plays a dominant role in almost all fields in the present globalized world. In the twenty-first century, the entire world has become narrow, accessible, sharable and familiar for all people as English is used as a common language. It has been accepted globally by many countries. This essay highlights the importance of English as a global language. It throws light on how travel and tourism, and entertainment fields benefit by adopting English as their principal language of communication. The essay also highlights the importance of English in education and employment.

Language is the primary source of communication. It is the method through which we share our ideas and thoughts with others. There are thousands of languages in the world, and every country has its national language. In the global world, the importance of English cannot be denied and ignored. English serves the purpose of the common language. It helps maintain international relationships in science, technology, business, education, travel, tourism and so on. It is the language used mainly by scientists, business organizations, the internet, and higher education and tourism.

Historical background of the English Language

English was initially the language of England, but due to the British Empire in many countries, English has become the primary or secondary language in former British colonies such as Canada, the United States, Sri Lanka, India and Australia, etc. Currently, English is the primary language of not only countries actively touched by British imperialism, but also many business and cultural spheres dominated by those countries. 67 countries have English as their official language, and 27 countries have English as their secondary language.

Reasons for Learning the English Language

Learning English is important, and people all over the world decide to study it as a second language. Many countries have included English as a second language in their school syllabus, so children start learning English at a young age. At the university level, students in many countries study almost all their subjects in English in order to make the material more accessible to international students. English remains a major medium of instruction in schools and universities. There are large numbers of books that are written in the English language. Many of the latest scientific discoveries are documented in English.

English is the language of the Internet. Knowing English gives access to over half the content on the Internet. Knowing how to read English will allow access to billions of pages of information that may not be otherwise available. With a good understanding and communication in English, we can travel around the globe. Knowing English increases the chances of getting a good job in a multinational company. Research from all over the world shows that cross-border business communication is most often conducted in English, and many international companies expect employees to be fluent in English. Many of the world’s top films, books and music are produced in English. Therefore, by learning English, we will have access to a great wealth of entertainment and will be able to build a great cultural understanding.

English is one of the most used and dominant languages in the world. It has a bright future, and it helps connect us to the global world. It also helps us in our personal and professional life. Although learning English can be challenging and time-consuming, we see that it is also very valuable to learn and can create many opportunities.

Frequently Asked Questions on English language Essay

Why is the language english popular.

English has 26 alphabets and is easier to learn when compared to other complex languages.

Is English the official language of India?

India has two official languages Hindi and English. Other than that these 22 other regional languages are also recognised and spoken widely.

Why is learning English important?

English is spoken around the world and thus can be used as an effective language for communication.

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Essay on Importance of English

Students are often asked to write an essay on Importance of English in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Importance of English

The global language.

English is a universal language, spoken in many countries. It helps connect people from different parts of the world.

Education and Career

Most educational resources and job opportunities require English proficiency. It opens up a world of possibilities.

Cultural Exchange

English allows us to understand and appreciate various cultures through their literature and media.

Internet and Technology

Most online content is in English. Knowing English helps us stay updated with the latest technology.

English is the common language for travelers. It helps us communicate and navigate in foreign lands.

Also check:

  • Speech on Importance of English

250 Words Essay on Importance of English


English is more than just a language; it is a key to global communication and understanding. Its importance cannot be overstated in an increasingly interconnected and globalized world.

English: A Lingua Franca

English is the lingua franca of the world, enabling communication across cultures. It is the primary language of international discourse, business, science, and technology. Proficiency in English opens doors to opportunities and collaborations globally.

Access to Information and Knowledge

Majority of the world’s knowledge is stored in English. Whether it is scientific research, literature, or digital content, English dominates. Understanding English allows access to a vast wealth of knowledge that would otherwise be inaccessible.

Professional Advancement

In the professional sphere, English is often a prerequisite. It enhances employability and mobility, especially in fields like IT, medicine, and academia. Companies increasingly operate internationally, making English proficiency crucial for collaboration and success.

English is not just a language but a powerful tool for global communication, knowledge access, and professional advancement. Its importance is undeniable in our interconnected world. Learning and mastering English is an investment that yields significant returns, both personally and professionally.

500 Words Essay on Importance of English

English, originally the language of the people of England, has now become a global lingua franca. It is not just a means of communication, but a bridge that connects people from different parts of the world. The importance of English can be understood from its widespread use in various domains of life such as education, business, technology, and diplomacy.

The Academic Significance of English

In the realm of education, English holds immense importance. It is the medium of instruction in many educational institutions globally. A strong command over English opens the doors to quality education and research materials, most of which are available in this language. It allows students to engage with global academic communities, participate in international conferences, and contribute to the world of knowledge.

English in the Business World

In the business world, English is a key to success. With globalization, businesses are not confined within national boundaries. They are expanding and collaborating with partners across the globe. English, being the common language, facilitates effective communication, negotiation, and collaboration. It breaks the language barriers and enables smooth business operations.

English and Technological Advancements

The role of English in technology is undeniable. The most advanced technological innovations, research, and user interfaces are primarily in English. It is the dominant language of the internet, with a vast majority of content created in it. Therefore, knowledge of English provides access to a wealth of information, digital resources, and technological advancements.

English as a Diplomatic Tool

In diplomacy, English serves as a universal language that aids in maintaining international relations. It is used in international organizations like the United Nations, World Bank, and International Monetary Fund. Proficiency in English empowers individuals to participate in global discussions and influence decision-making processes.

In conclusion, the importance of English in today’s world is indisputable. It is a powerful tool that fosters global interactions, broadens educational opportunities, facilitates business transactions, and drives technological progress. Therefore, mastering English is not just about acquiring a language skill; it is about enhancing one’s ability to navigate and thrive in this globalized world.

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importance of world englishes essay

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  • Published: 26 February 2024

English language hegemony: retrospect and prospect

  • Jie Zeng   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-0983-9075 1 , 2 &
  • Jianbu Yang 3  

Humanities and Social Sciences Communications volume  11 , Article number:  317 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

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  • Language and linguistics

This paper explores the ascent of English as a global lingua franca within the context of linguistic hegemony, following Phillipson’s 1992 framework. It scrutinizes English’s role in the rapidly globalizing world, emphasizing its dominance across economic, governance, and scientific sectors and its impact on non-native English-speaking countries. Utilizing a sociolinguistic approach, combined with historical and interdisciplinary analysis, the study evaluates the influence of English hegemony in cultural, educational, and technological domains, with a focus on post-colonial and expanding circle nations. Additionally, the paper provides critical insights for developing language policies in these areas, considering the intricate role of English in the global linguistic landscape. It concludes by considering the prospects of English language hegemony.

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The dominance of English in the 21st century has exerted a profound influence on the global economic landscape, political configurations, and cultural systems of nations worldwide. The global promulgation of English, however, did not materialize abruptly; it is the culmination of a protracted process of development and evolution (Gordin, 2015 ). Tracing back to around the 5th century, invasions by the Saxons, Angles, and Jutes onto the British Isles initiated the linguistic amalgamation of Anglo-Saxon and Celtic tongues, giving rise to what is known as Old English. The advent of Standard English in the Elizabethan era of the 16th century owes much to the Norman Conquest’s introduction of Norman French influences. The 17th century witnessed the surge of the Industrial Revolution, which augmented Britain’s economic and military prowess, ushering in its era as a global hegemon and the “Empire on which the sun never sets” (Allen, 2017 ). Concurrent with its imperial expansion into Africa and Asia, Britain disseminated the English language across these continents. Subsequently, in the aftermath of World War II, the United States emerged with substantial economic growth and a concentration of capital and wealth. The U.S.‘s rapidly ascending political, military, economic, and technological clout facilitated the widespread adoption of English, further entrenched by its pervasiveness in media, film, television, and advertising. Presently, with over 1.2 billion English speakers globally (Rao, 2019 ), the reach and ubiquity of the English language are evident.

Phillipson’s theory of “Linguistic Imperialism” (1992) provides a critical examination of language rights, policies, the endangerment of languages, and linguistic hegemony, with a specific focus on English’s role as an international lingua franca . This theory enhances our understanding of modern English hegemony. In today’s globalized context, English is not only an essential tool for international discourse but also the premier foreign language in numerous countries, with its symbolic stature and status as the international lingua franca being incontrovertible. The hegemony of English has significantly shaped the language policies and political economies of many nations. Several countries in Asia and Africa, having experienced British and American colonial dominion, encountered the dual-edged sword of English hegemony—both facilitating and eroding indigenous languages, leaving an indelible imprint on their societies, economies, and cultures. Thus, acknowledging the considerable impact of English on the linguistic policies and political economies of post-colonial nations, we must also critically assess the positive dissemination of English culture alongside a reflection on the global ramifications of English linguistic hegemony.

In the current epoch of the fourth industrial revolution, which is distinguished by the convergence of digital, biological, and physical advancements, it seems likely that the dominance of the English language will not only endure but even extend its reach. English, being the primary element of worldwide communication and the predominant language used on the internet, is expected to continue being the favored means for international discussions, advancements in technology, and the sharing of information. The prominence of Silicon Valley and the prevailing influence of American and British institutions in the fields of science and technology serve to solidify the position of the English language as a leading force in the realm of innovation. Furthermore, it is anticipated that English, with its extensive datasets and linguistic resources, will become increasingly dominant as the primary language for programming and engaging with technology, as artificial intelligence and machine learning systems progress. Therefore, it is anticipated that the dominance of the English language in this emerging period would enable and maybe expedite international partnerships, therefore expanding the frontiers of invention and fostering unparalleled global interconnectedness.

The research methodology for this study on English Language Hegemony combines a sociolinguistic approach with historical and interdisciplinary analysis. Using Phillipson’s ( 1992 ) framework, we examine English’s historical development and current status as a global lingua franca . Our approach includes a thorough historical literature review and qualitative methods such as textual analysis and case studies, focusing on English’s influence in sectors like the economy, governance, science, and education, particularly in post-colonial and expanding circle nations. The integration of insights from linguistics, history, sociology, and education allows for a comprehensive exploration of English hegemony’s cultural, educational, and technological effects, while also addressing future language policies and the ongoing evolution of English dominance.

Related studies

The hegemony of the English language has developed into a core research topic in the field of sociolinguistics since the end of the 20th century. Scholars such as Phillipson (Phillipson, 1997 , 2004 , 2008 , 2009 , 2018 ), Tsuda ( 2008 ), Ives ( 2009 ), Macedo et al. ( 2015 ), Choi ( 2010 ), and Borden ( 2014 ) have made significant contributions to the construction and development of the theoretical framework of English hegemony/linguistic imperialism studies. This research field involves the historical evolution of English in the context of globalization, its political, economic, and cultural impacts, and its effects on language diversity. It particularly focuses on issues such as linguistic power, linguistic identity, and linguistic justice, all of which constitute key areas in the struggle for ideologies and power.

The burgeoning interest in post-colonialism and new imperialism within Western social sciences since the 1980s has cast the English language into the spotlight. It was Robert Phillipson and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas who, from an ideological stance, first articulated the notion of language hierarchies. In his pivotal 1992 work “ Linguistic Imperialism ”, Phillipson, a prominent linguist, addressed critical issues surrounding language rights, policies, endangerment, and hegemony, specifically in the context of English as a lingua franca . Scholars like Pennycook ( 2021 ), Canagarajah ( 1999 ), and Graddol ( 2006 ) have since contributed to the discourse, spotlighting the challenges of English dominance in third-world countries. Canagarajah, particularly, underscored the profound dilemma post-colonial societies face in reconciling Western culture and values with indigenous ones, a challenge compounded by the deep-rooted presence of English within their cultural and ideological frameworks (Canagarajah, 1999 ). The linguistic influence of colonial powers has not only bolstered the status of their languages but also inflicted detrimental effects across various spheres including economics, politics, society, culture, and education (Ricento, 2015 ).

Current research on English language hegemony is multi-dimensional, examining its ascent to the primary medium of global communication and the ensuing cultural and educational ramifications. Studies indicate that English’s privileged status bolsters the cultural exports of English-speaking nations and may engender linguistic disparities within non-native English-speaking countries, influencing individual socio-economic prospects and societal attitudes toward language and cultural preservation (Haidar, 2019 ).

Scholars have conducted in-depth investigations into English dominance from various perspectives. The critical inquiry has spotlighted the adverse effects of English dominance on educational policy, language planning, and the viability of minoritized language groups, advocating for initiatives that foster linguistic diversity and parity (Davis & Phyak, 2017 ). Conversely, pragmatic research investigates strategies to uphold linguistic diversity alongside the widespread use of English, such as through bilingual or multilingual educational models, or by emphasizing native languages in public domains and media (Flores & Rosa, 2015 ; Phillipson, 2004 ). These analyses suggest that, while English’s global influence is likely to persist, maintaining vibrant language practices and policies remains both viable and imperative at local and regional levels.

Ongoing investigations strive to strike a balance between leveraging the economic and communicative advantages of English as a lingua franca and safeguarding indigenous linguistic heritages (Dewey, 2007 ; Grant, 2012 ). This has prompted interdisciplinary research that intersects sociology, education, linguistics, and policy studies, aiming to decipher how languages transform under the pressures of globalization and to craft apt strategies for intercultural communication and language pedagogy (Jackson, 2019 ; Modiano, 2020 ). Concurrently, national and local governments, educational bodies, and international entities are engaged in finding means to cherish and nurture linguistic diversity, whilst also considering the role of English as a facilitative tool rather than an instrument of cultural or economic imposition.

Contemporary academic discussions around the dominance of the English language have adopted a comprehensive perspective, examining this problem from several angles such as globalization, educational policies, and cultural impact. One notable tendency seen in scholarly literature is the comprehensive analysis of the prevailing dominance of the English language and its consequential effects on the preservation and promotion of linguistic variety. The phenomenon of ‘linguistic imperialism’ in the new globalization era has been examined by various studies (e.g., Lai, 2021 ; Mackenzie, 2022 ; Smith & Kim, 2015 ) and the researchers have provided critical analysis on the marginalization of indigenous languages and cultures resulting from the widespread use of English in academic and professional domains. These scholarly works contend that the dominance of the English language reinforces a monolingual mindset in worldwide communication, often disregarding the importance of multilingualism and diversity.

Scholars have extensively investigated the techniques of resistance and adaptation used by non-English-speaking populations in reaction to hegemonic forces. In the contemporary period characterized by the fourth industrial revolution, there has been a notable emergence of scholarly investigations that explore the convergence of technology and language. Canagarajah ( 2020 ) conducted a study examining how digital platforms provide opportunities for individuals to engage in ‘translingual practises,’ which include the blending of English with other languages. This phenomenon serves as a means of contesting the dominant position of the English language. Furthermore, there has been a recent emphasis in empirical research on how educational policies worldwide are responding to this dominant influence. One common approach is the promotion of bilingual education and the cultivation of English language skills alongside native languages, intending to prepare students for the demands of a globalized labor market (Wang & Zheng, 2021 ).

The dominance of the English language and its cultural impacts have become a focal point of interest in academic circles. This phenomenon has elicited a scholarly response that oscillates between critical analysis and pragmatic acceptance of English hegemony. A growing body of research has focused on investigating the influence of English as a worldwide lingua franca on cultural identities and practices. Scholars such as Melchers et al. ( 2019 ), Kirkpatrick ( 2023 ), and Smith and Nelson ( 2019 ) have directed their attention towards the notion of ‘World Englishes’, examining how English has been modified in many sociocultural settings, leading to the emergence of novel English variations and subsequently, novel manifestations of cultural expression. This corpus of literature highlights an increasing acknowledgement of the dynamic and adaptable characteristics of language, suggesting that the dominance of the English language does not just exert a one-way influence on culture, but rather involves a mutual process of cultural interchange and alteration.

In brief, the existing body of literature about the English language hegemony is undergoing continuous development. Recent research encompasses a wide variety of viewpoints, spanning from a critical examination of English’s prevailing position to an investigation of the flexible and oppositional approaches used in multilingual communication within the context of the digital era. There is a growing inclination to acknowledge the intricate nature of language hegemony, as it intersects with cultural identity, education, and the relentless progression of technology.

The formation and development of English language hegemony

The ascendancy of English as a global lingua franca is a phenomenon intricately woven into the fabric of British colonial history. Its roots can be traced to the 16th century when British explorations and subsequent colonization laid the groundwork for the nation’s maritime dominance (Kennedy, 2017 ). These early expeditions, exemplified by the conquest of Newfoundland, marked the beginning of Britain’s imperial expansion. Over time, this expansion led to the establishment of a vast colonial empire where the sun famously never set, and with it, the dissemination of the English language.

The dissemination of the English language was not only coincidental but rather a purposeful tactic used to solidify British hegemony. The use of English language was employed as a strategy to centralize authority within colonial areas, resulting in the subordination of indigenous people and fostering a perception of inadequacy towards their languages and traditions. The enduring consequence was the establishment of English as the official language in several former colonies, a legacy that endures in contemporary times.

The post-World War II era saw a collapse in British colonial status, which in turn led to the rise of the United States as a prominent economic and political powerhouse (Kramer, 2016 ). As British power declined, the United States took on the responsibility of advancing the English language, establishing a strong connection between its spread and the dissemination of its own cultural, political, and economic principles. Employing educational endeavors and cultural diplomacy, the United States enhanced the prominence of the English language on a worldwide scale, assuring its association with contemporary progress and influence.

Thus, while the United Kingdom laid the early foundations of what would become linguistic imperialism, it was the United States that carried the torch into the latter half of the 20th century and beyond, ensuring that English maintained its hegemonic status. The evolution of English as a tool of imperialism is a testament to the geopolitical shifts of the past centuries, with the United States playing a crucial role in the language’s continued global prevalence (Crystal, 2009 ).

We conducted a literature review spanning from 1992 to the present, using Google Scholar and Web of Science with the keywords “English language hegemony” and “English linguistic imperialism” on January 9, 2024. This search yielded approximately 1325 records, from which we selected around 120 key papers specifically relevant to the formation and evolution of English Language Hegemony. Table 1 presents a comprehensive timeline of key events in the rise of English hegemony, tracing its journey from the early British colonial period to its current global prominence under the United States’ influence. This table also highlights various strategic efforts to promote English and the political shifts that have contributed to its widespread adoption.

The influence of English hegemony

The pervasive role of English as the “world language” in scientific, economic, academic, and political discourse is now widely acknowledged amidst intensifying globalization (Genç & Bada, 2010 ; Pennycook, 2017 ). The entrenchment of English hegemony has complex ramifications for the linguistic ecosystems of non-Anglophone nations, particularly those with a history of colonization. Language serves not only as a communicative tool but as a hallmark of identity, and the rise of English has deeply influenced the linguistic landscapes of countries around the globe. Phillipson ( 2018 ) introduces this dynamic, delineating a divide between core English-speaking countries—such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and Australia—and peripheral English-speaking nations, where English is official or widely spoken, such as India, the Philippines, and China.

The acquisition of English in these peripheral countries often transcends mere language learning; it becomes a conduit for social and cultural ideologies emanating from the Anglophone core (Canagarajah, 2007 ). This influence fosters a power imbalance where local languages may be sidelined or diminished, sometimes facing the threat of obsolescence. The post-colonial countries exemplify this trend, where English has remained a dominant force post-independence, impacting the local vernacular and cultural norms (Buschfeld & Kautzsch, 2017 ). Language not only expresses but also preserves culture. Hence, the erosion of linguistic diversity due to English imperialism risks the extinction of rich cultural heritages. Colonial policies that mandated English learning were not just pedagogical but also tools of ideological and cultural subjugation.

In the current era of globalization, the omnipresence of English continues to exert its influence on former colonial states and beyond. Phillipson ( 2017 ) highlighted the tendency of African university graduates to adopt Western cultural perspectives through their English proficiency, often becoming the most Westernized segment in their societies. This reflects a broader trend where cultural and ideological affiliations with English-speaking nations are reinforced through language.

While the drawbacks of English dominance are clear, its role in globalization cannot be entirely dismissed as negative. For many non-native speakers, English is a lingua franca facilitating communication across diverse linguistic backgrounds, catalyzing scientific advancement, and enabling access to global commerce. It’s a vehicle for cultural exchange and economic opportunity. The proliferation of English has allowed previously colonized and other non-Anglophone countries to partake in international discourse and trade.

The significance of English’s dominance in the fields of science and technology cannot be exaggerated. English is widely used as the predominant language in several academic and scientific institutes worldwide. Xu ( 2010 ) points out that the distribution and extension of information are profoundly influenced by the strategic relevance of the English language. The prominence of Anglophone nations in the realms of science and technology has contributed to the elevation of English’s position within these domains, facilitating the dissemination of cutting-edge information to less developed countries.

Furthermore, English serves as a crucial intermediary, enabling emerging economies to assimilate and innovate in science and technology. It is omnipresent in various media, facilitating a global understanding that transcends national borders. Consequently, proficiency in English equips non-Anglophone countries with the tools to engage with, and potentially transform, their own social and technological landscapes.

A prospect of English language hegemony

The current worldwide dominance of the English language in discourse is anticipated to encounter substantial upheavals and difficulties shortly. The international language hierarchy may be significantly impacted by the emergence of economies in light of the dynamic global political and economic environment (Warschauer, 2000 ). The increasing economic power of China, coupled with its growing worldwide impact, has the potential to enhance the prominence of Mandarin, especially in Asia and elsewhere where Chinese investment is substantial. Likewise, languages such as Spanish, Arabic, and French have the potential to attain importance as a result of enhanced economic partnerships, political connections, or cultural exchanges. The anticipated multipolar linguistic shift has the potential to transform the previously dominant English-centric paradigm, leading to a global movement towards genuine multilingualism and diversity.

The potential use of technological breakthroughs, namely in the domains of artificial intelligence and machine translation, can diminish the dependence on English as a universally accepted means of facilitating communication across other languages (Crossley, 2018 ). The increasing prevalence of real-time translation software has facilitated the ability of non-native English speakers to participate in worldwide discourse using their original languages while understanding others. If this technology attains a satisfactory level of precision and dependability, it has the potential to reduce the urgency for acquiring English language skills, hence reducing the perceived need for it.

On the other hand, these technical advancements might unintentionally contribute to linguistic hegemony, given that the tech sector is mostly led by English-speaking organizations. This could result in the promotion of goods and services that further strengthen the dominance of the English language on a worldwide scale. Notwithstanding these issues, globalization has the potential to solidify the position of English as the dominant language for communication, especially in domains such as academia, international business, and digital platforms (Zeng et al., 2023 ). The enduring need for English as a worldwide language is sustained by its prevalence in academic publications, business communication, and online content development.

Nevertheless, the increasing recognition and value placed on cultural variety may catalyze endeavors aimed at fostering and safeguarding indigenous languages and traditions. There is a growing trend in national language strategies to prioritize the preservation of linguistic variety and mitigate the excessive dominance of any one language (Lo Bianco, 2010 ). Educational institutions may endorse bilingual or multilingual instructional approaches, which aim to strengthen students’ ties to their local languages while simultaneously introducing them to English or other globally recognized languages (Lasagabaster, 2015 ). The implementation of such policies has the potential to both protect cultural assets and prepare individuals for active participation in global affairs.

In the foreseeable future, we may see a shift towards a more diverse and equitable global linguistic environment, where English will be integrated into a polycentric language system rather than maintaining its position as the only global vernacular. Furthermore, the future impact of the English language will probably fluctuate following the political and economic circumstances of the countries where English is mostly spoken. The potential decrease in the soft power or worldwide prestige of the United States or the United Kingdom may have an indirect impact on the global prominence of the English language. On the other hand, the worldwide increase in English education, particularly in areas where it is associated with socio-economic progress, has the potential to sustain its global importance.

The future course of English dominance will be influenced by a variety of complex global issues, including economic, technical, political, educational, and cultural elements. The resuscitation of minority and regional languages via localization and cultural movements has the potential to rejuvenate these languages (Pennycook, 2017 ). However, it is anticipated that English will continue to maintain its crucial function as a means of facilitating worldwide communication. However, with the increasing number of voices from across the world, the dominance of the English language may adopt a more accommodating and inclusive form, becoming part of a multilingual global conversation rather than maintaining its position as the only means of international communication. Table 2 provides a thorough description of the future trajectory of English linguistic hegemony.

Implications for language policy and planning in non-English speaking countries

The widespread diffusion of the English language has had a detrimental impact on linguistic variety at a worldwide level, resulting in the marginalisation and possible eradication of indigenous languages in regions where English is used as a secondary or non-native language. The impact of English influence is seen in the modified linguistic and cultural environments of several countries where English is not the primary language (Piekkari et al., 2015 ). Therefore, these nations need to take into account their distinct linguistic and cultural legacies while formulating and executing language-related strategies. These policies need to facilitate the acknowledgement and promotion of indigenous languages at an international level.

It is of utmost importance for states to uphold the ideal of linguistic equality and to resist any kind of linguistic hegemony, both domestically and on the global stage. It is imperative to undertake a collective effort aimed at fostering an atmosphere that values language parity and resolutely safeguards the linguistic and cultural diversity of every ethnic community.

National foreign language policies should prioritize the cultivation of competency in both widely spoken languages and less often taught languages. English, while acknowledged as a prominent international language in countries such as China, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations, is not the exclusive focal point within elementary and secondary school curricula (Ji et al., 2004 ). There exists a significant need for educational resources that may enhance the learning of less often spoken languages such as Arabic, Russian, French, and others. Consequently, there is a need to strengthen these educational resources (Piekkari et al., 2015 ).

When developing current language policy, it is crucial for nations where English is not the primary language to thoroughly assess the impact of foreign languages on their local tongues and the dynamics that exist between them. This evaluation is necessary to prevent a revival of English dominance. The widespread prevalence of the English language has undeniably impacted the teaching of other languages in these nations, with instructional materials and pronunciation mostly drawing from British and American origins. As a result, throughout the process of obtaining English language proficiency, students inevitably encounter Anglophone cultures, which might unintentionally foster a preference for Western civilization while neglecting their own indigenous cultures.

To tackle this issue, instructors of the English language in environments where English is not the primary language have the opportunity to include aspects of indigenous culture in their curriculum decisions. This approach allows students to effectively communicate their cultural history via the medium of English. Educators have the role of imparting well-rounded ideas and ideals.

The issue of conforming to either British or American pronunciation rules frequently gives rise to debate (Barrett et al., 2022 ). It is important to highlight that the primary goal of developing English language competence is to improve global communication effectiveness. When considering the historical progression of English dominance, several individuals argue that the rise of nations where English is not the primary language might provide valuable perspectives for these countries and their citizens, perhaps enhancing their ability to compete and their overall national strength.

The growing fascination among English-speaking nations that belong to the ‘inner circle’ with non-English-speaking cultures has increased the acquisition of languages such as Chinese and the exploration of professional opportunities in areas like China. To mitigate misinterpretations and effectively communicate non-English-speaking customs, instructors from other countries must possess a proficient command of the language spoken in the host country.

The acknowledgement of the intrinsic uniqueness of different languages and cultures requires careful interpretation to prevent misunderstandings. In the context of presenting non-English-speaking languages and cultures to a global audience, educators need to use suitable resources and exhibit a profound comprehension of the traditional civilizations they are portraying (Heininen, 2021 ). The strategic identification and targeting of receptive areas and nations play a pivotal role in the effective promotion of non-English-speaking cultures on a worldwide scale.

Promoting a common linguistic platform is a vital undertaking for countries where English is not the primary language. This program has the potential to meet the linguistic needs of many countries, while also safeguarding and promoting the cultural legacies of cultures where English is not the primary language. This methodology has the potential to augment cross-cultural understanding and improve efficient communication.

The increasing fascination with other cultures among those living in the core English-speaking countries has resulted in a growing demand for bilingual education and cultural exchange initiatives. The increasing desire of people from many nations to participate in markets such as China necessitates the presence of multilingual specialists who can effectively navigate the complexities of varied language and cultural contexts. These individuals who possess fluency in two languages not only assist in the facilitation of commercial exchanges but also contribute to a more profound degree of cultural absorption and comprehension. The individuals’ high level of expertise in both English and the target language allows them to accurately perceive subtle cultural nuances. This ensures that international interactions maintain both linguistic accuracy and cultural authenticity. The ability to navigate and comprehend several cultures is becoming more advantageous in professional settings that operate on a global scale since it is sometimes just as important to comprehend local customs and practices as it is to grasp financial statements.

Simultaneously, there exists a collective endeavor within nations where English is not the primary language to enhance the level of English language ability among their citizens. This strategic manoeuvre is not only focused on bolstering global competitiveness but also on assuring the proper dissemination of their cultural narratives and values on the international platform. Language learning programs are being enhanced by the inclusion of cultural competence training, which equips learners with the skills to effectively comprehend and convey complex concepts across diverse cultural contexts. Educational investments of this kind play a crucial role in cultivating a group of individuals with a global perspective, possessing both language proficiency and cultural sensitivity. These individuals are capable of not only preserving their cultural heritage but also successfully interacting with international society. The simultaneous emphasis on linguistic competence and cultural knowledge highlights the complex interplay between preserving cultural legacy and embracing global interconnectivity. This equilibrium will significantly influence the dynamics of cultural interchange throughout the period of the fourth industrial revolution.

The profound impact of English hegemony on non-English-speaking regions is twofold: while it has been a catalyst for growth and development, it has simultaneously posed threats to indigenous languages and cultures, potentially driving them to the periphery or extinction. This dominance also results in a biased international academic community where non-English-speaking researchers may face discrimination. However, the advent of multilingual policies has begun to erode the monolithic nature of English hegemony. The emergence of distinct English varieties—such as Japanese English, Indian English, and other localized iterations—epitomizes the language’s adaptability to diverse civilizational contexts.

In conclusion, the implementation of language policy in countries where English is not the primary language requires a deep understanding of the complex implications of English dominance. The prevailing worldwide influence of the English language, while facilitating global communication, poses a potential threat to the preservation and recognition of indigenous languages and cultures. Therefore, it is important to carefully navigate the strategic formulation of these policies, ensuring that they effectively promote the progress and global integration of national languages while preserving their distinct cultural identities, which are integral to their inherent worth.

To achieve this objective, it is essential to implement the promotion of national languages at the global level while considering and incorporating the prevailing linguistic and cultural frameworks in the targeted areas. The use of customized approaches that are tailored to the particular sociolinguistic contexts of the intended recipients is necessary, as opposed to relying on generic procedures. Hence, language policy needs to be firmly rooted in culturally sensitive methodologies that prioritize the safeguarding of linguistic variety, while simultaneously recognizing the pervasive existence and practicality of English as a global means of communication.

Furthermore, these policies must include the development and distribution of information in several languages, the promotion of translation and interpretation services, and the nurturing of intercultural communication skills. It is essential to promote educational systems that prioritize the significance of acquiring proficiency in several languages. This approach will effectively equip forthcoming generations with the necessary skills to effectively navigate and actively participate in an ever more linked global society. To effectively expand the influence of national languages and enhance the diversity of global linguistics, language policymakers must engage in collaborative efforts with educators, linguists, and cultural specialists, prioritizing the development of language policies that promote linguistic plurality and intercultural comprehension.

It is imperative that these policies effectively acknowledge and promote the vast array of global languages, fostering an environment that encourages active participation and genuine appreciation within the worldwide community. This recognition of linguistic variety serves as a gateway to accessing a multitude of information and views, enriching the collective understanding. Employing these collective efforts, it is conceivable to envisage a global scenario wherein English dominance coexists harmoniously with, and indeed fosters, a diverse and thriving tapestry of languages and cultures.

To effectively harness English while preserving linguistic diversity in the context of globalization, countries like China, France, Japan, and Brazil can adopt tailored strategies. China could integrate English into its education system to foster bilingualism, while France might boost its cultural exchange programs with English-speaking nations for improved language skills and cultural insights. Japan could benefit from language policy reforms enhancing English education, balancing it with Japanese cultural preservation. Brazil, with its linguistic richness, might develop media in both Portuguese and English to maintain language balance. These countries can also encourage research and publications in both English and native languages for global outreach and local relevance. Community language programs, particularly vital in linguistically diverse nations like Brazil, can aid in preserving indigenous languages. Additionally, advocating for multilingualism in international platforms can help these countries navigate the complexities of English’s global dominance.

In this paper, we examined Phillipson’s concept of English linguistic imperialism, as well as the dynamic development of the theory and practices of English language hegemony, through a sociolinguistic perspective. It emphasizes the interconnection between the growth of English dominance and the expansion of the British Empire and the United States. It examines the role of the British imperial outreach in embedding English across Asia and Africa, where it served as a tool for colonial rule. The paper then transitions to discussing how the United States, with its significant political and economic influence, further propelled English into the status of a global lingua franca . The focus shifts to the paradoxical effects of English dominance, especially its role in advancing science, technology, and economics in non-English-speaking regions. Additionally, the paper considers the unifying role of English in linguistically diverse countries, while acknowledging that this serves as a temporary solution in the face of complex linguistic dynamics.

This inquiry into English hegemony’s duality concludes that, although English serves as a vehicle for advancement, it also threatens the survival of local languages and cultures, thus embodying a dualistic nature. For non-English-speaking countries to leverage English beneficially, they must navigate this dichotomy with strategic cultural and linguistic preservation efforts. Examples include multilingual policies in the Philippines, Malaysia, and China, which aim to bolster indigenous languages while also mitigating English dependence in education and other sectors. A shift away from an overemphasis on British and American pronunciation norms—often misperceived as the gold standard—is advisable, reinforcing the primary objective of language acquisition: effective communication.

The fundamental shortcoming of the research is its inadequate analysis of the complexities behind the dominance of current English, highlighting the need for a more comprehensive academic investigation. The drawback of this research stems from its narrow emphasis on multilingual policies, which, while important, do not fully cover the many complexities imposed by globalization and cultural interactions. This approach fails to acknowledge the unique obstacles and circumstances faced by various nations and areas when it comes to adjusting to the prevalence of English. To bridge these knowledge gaps, it is recommended that future research endeavors explore the intricate relationship between globalization and linguistic dynamics. Additionally, it is imperative to investigate the multifaceted function of the English language in international arenas such as diplomacy and commerce. Furthermore, a comprehensive assessment of the repercussions of English on local cultures and languages is needed. The proposed extended inquiry would provide a more thorough comprehension of the intricacies surrounding English hegemony, considering many worldwide viewpoints and ramifications. Additionally, it would offer valuable insights to guide more knowledgeable language policy and educational approaches.

As globalization advances, the role of English is expected to evolve due to technological progress and geopolitical changes. The digital age and widespread internet access have made English central to global communication and information exchange. The impending Fourth Industrial Revolution, with developments in AI and machine learning, could further amplify English’s importance in global economic, scientific, and technological spheres (Skilton & Hovsepian, 2018 ). However, the rise of non-Western powers, especially China, may lead to a more diverse linguistic landscape. Additionally, the significance of regional economic groups like RCEP and CPTPP, alongside a focus on preserving indigenous cultures, could encourage the use of local languages along with English (Pomfret, 2021 ). While English is expected to maintain its global dominance, it faces increasing challenges from emerging powers and the push for linguistic diversity due to cultural and regional dynamics.

Recent scholarship has provided new insights into the complexities of English hegemony in the modern era, revealing its multifaceted impacts on global communication, cultural identity, and power structures. Scholars like Phillipson ( 2022 ) highlight the challenges to linguistic diversity posed by English’s pervasive influence as a global communication tool. Meanwhile, critiques of dual language bilingual education, such as those by Freire et al. ( 2022 ), expose how neoliberal ideologies and ‘white streaming’ reinforce English dominance, often to the detriment of other languages. Additionally, O’Regan’s ( 2021 ) work delves into how global English is intertwined with capitalist structures, shaping global power dynamics. These insights collectively underscore the cultural, economic, and educational consequences of English’s global dominance and the challenges it poses for maintaining linguistic diversity.

Furthermore, the nuances of English hegemony reflect a dynamic interplay between globalization, cultural identity, and power. English has evolved from merely a language to a symbol of global connectivity, essential for economic and educational opportunities. Its role in international business, technology, and academia marks it as a crucial gateway for global participation. However, this dominance also leads to the marginalization of local languages and cultures, raising concerns about linguistic imperialism and cultural homogenization. The emergence of “World Englishes” challenges the traditional native-speaker model, advocating for the legitimacy of diverse English varieties (Kirkpatrick, 2023 ; Melchers et al., 2019 ; Schneider, 2018 ). This shift represents a broader perspective on English as a tool for cross-cultural communication, rather than a symbol of cultural superiority. Consequently, the hegemony of English is not just about the language itself but also its intersection with identity, power, and access in an increasingly globalised world.

Data availability

Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the current study.

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Zeng J, Ponce AR, Li Y (2023) English linguistic neo-imperialism in the era of globalization: a conceptual viewpoint. Front Psychol 14:853. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1149471

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The authors wish to express their sincere gratitude to the Humanities and Social Sciences Youth Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China as this paper was supported by it under the project “A dialectical study of English linguistic imperialism in the Philippines from the perspective of the Belt and Road Initiative”, Grant Number: 18YJC740006.

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Zeng, J., Yang, J. English language hegemony: retrospect and prospect. Humanit Soc Sci Commun 11 , 317 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-024-02821-z

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How ‘Eruption,’ the new Michael Crichton novel completed with James Patterson’s help, was created

When Michael Crichton died from cancer in 2008, his wife Sherri was pregnant with their son John Michael. Sherri is now CEO of CrichtonSun and works to preserve Michael’s work and keep his legacy alive primarily for their son and Michael’s daughter Taylor. A new Crichton novel ‘Eruption,” finished by James Patterson, is now available. (June 4)

Sherri Crichton poses for a portrait on Tuesday, May 21, 2024, in Los Angeles to promote "Eruption," a book by her late husband Michael Crichton, co-authored by James Patterson. (Photo by Willy Sanjuan/Invision/AP)

Sherri Crichton poses for a portrait on Tuesday, May 21, 2024, in Los Angeles to promote “Eruption,” a book by her late husband Michael Crichton, co-authored by James Patterson. (Photo by Willy Sanjuan/Invision/AP)

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This cover image released by Little, Brown and Co. shows “Eruption” by Michael Crichton and James Patterson. (Little, Brown and Co. via AP)

When “Jurassic Park” author Michael Crichton died from cancer in 2008, he left behind numerous unfinished projects, including a manuscript he began 20 years ago about the imminent eruption of Mauna Loa, the world’s largest active volcano.

Crichton’s widow Sherri, who is CEO of CrichtonSun, tapped another millions-selling author — James Patterson— to complete the story. “Eruption” is now in stores.

Patterson is very familiar with co-authoring. In recent years he’s published a novel with Bill Clinton and Dolly Parton, and often shares writing responsibilities on his other novels.

For “Eruption,” Crichton says she gave Patterson all of her husband’s research and he came back with an outline. Some of the story needed to be brought forward to present day. “We talked probably every few weeks,” Sherri Crichton says. “It was so much fun to read. It would be hard to tell what was Crichton and what’s Patterson’s.”

Besides “Eruption,” four novels have been published under Michael Crichton’s name since his death, some with the help of other writers . Sherri Crichton says to expect “other Michael Crichton adventures” in the future.

This cover image released by Avid Reader shows "When the Sea Came Alive: An Oral History of D-Day" by Garrett M. Graff. (Avid Reader via AP)

Crichton spoke with The Associated Press about her husband’s legacy. Answers have been edited for clarity and brevity.

AP: You’ve worked hard to preserve Michael’s archive. Why is that important to you?

CRICHTON: When Michael died I was pregnant with our son. I was like, “How am I going to raise our son with him not knowing his father?” So I had to go searching for Michael, and I found him through his papers, which is so remarkable. It gives me so much joy to bring things like “Eruption” to life, because it really does allow John Michael the opportunity to really know his father. That’s why I do what I do. It’s for the love of him and Michael’s daughter Taylor.

AP: What did you discover from those papers?

CRICHTON: Michael had structure and discipline. He was constantly moving all of his projects around. When he wrote “Jurassic Park” he was also writing four or five other books at the exact same time. He charted everything. How many words he wrote in a day, how many pages, how did that compare to other days, how long it took. Then he would have different charts that would compare what one book was doing compared to, say, for instance, “Fear” or “Disclosure.” Then he would have another chart that would track the amount of time it would take to publication, the amount of time it took to sell the movie rights, then for the movie to be released.

AP: Sometimes when people are so cerebral, they struggle socially. Did Michael?

CRICHTON: The person I knew was this incredibly kind, loving, humble, wonderful man that was a great father and incredible husband and fun to be around. I will say he was famous for his his pregnant pauses. When writing a book, the pauses would be longer. You didn’t know if he was really at the table. He was working something out and he would isolate to land that plane.

At first it was very shocking when he was in the zone, but I learned to very much respect that. Like, “I’m not going anywhere. He’s not going anywhere. And I can’t wait to read the book.”

AP: When do you feel closest to Michael?

CRICHTON: I still live in our home. I still have the office, which is at home. I honestly feel that he’s always in the other room writing. I really don’t ever feel disconnected to him. And our son is such the spitting image of him. John Michael has never known his father, and he has some of the exact characteristics of Michael. He’s very cerebral. He’s very articulate. He’s a sucker for a great book and research. And he’s a really good writer.

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This release of WorldCat Discovery includes the following enhancements as well as bug fixes:

Filter search results to physical journals

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Out of scope: Please note that the following are out of scope for this release:

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  • Explicit search syntax to search for Print Journal, Print Magazine using AND x0:jrnl AND x4: PrintJournal .  We will add this in a future release. Meanwhile, you may continue to use the syntax AND x0:jrnl NOT x4:digital.

Your users can now find known primary works more easily as we have de-emphasized book reviews about them in search results. Records describing a primary work are now more likely to appear above those for book reviews about them. Your users are less likely to mistakenly access or request a book review when looking for a known primary work. 

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When your library does not hold the primary work but does hold journals containing book reviews about it, users who scope their search to Libraries Worldwide and rank the results using the ‘Library’ relevance algorithm are likely to see records for book reviews in the journals that your library holds above those for the primary work that you do not hold. 

More accurately access licensed content when DOI URIs are available 

With this release, we are beginning to roll out an enhancement that will increase the reliability of WorldCat Discovery’s primary e-links. This will help your users more accurately access electronic resources.

For full-text article records that have a DOI available in their Central Index metadata, WorldCat Discovery will now pass that to the WorldCat knowledge base. These DOIs from Central Index metadata will supplement those that the knowledge base linker currently retrieves from CrossRef. Over the coming months, OCLC’s knowledge base team will be working to leverage the DOIs from metadata records passed by WorldCat Discovery to enhance selected vendor and collection link schemes. This will enable the knowledge base linker to use DOIs more often in the links that it sends to vendor platforms and get the user to the full-text article content more efficiently and accurately.

Display subject headings from additional vocabularies

With this release, subject headings from the following vocabularies are now included in the Subjects field on the item details page when your library has selected them for display.

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SubjectVocabsSelect ServiceConfig2.png

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On the item details page, within the ‘Browse related items’ tab, for items that contain more than 100 parts, when users click to view the parts, a correct count of the parts is now displayed at the top of the modified search results listing. Previously, while the correct count of parts was displayed on the ‘Contains NNN items’ CTA within ‘Browse related items’, the count displayed on the modified search results listing was limited to 100. 

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This is a list of new databases added to WorldCat Discovery and WorldCat.org since our last update.

You can enable these databases as search options in the Metasearch Content module of the OCLC Service Configuration site. Please remember that your library must have a valid subscription to these databases in order to enable them.

Below is a list of new database names and providers for reference. The complete list of databases is available at  http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/oclc/worldcat-discovery/contentlist.xls  

Available in WorldCat Discovery and WorldCat.org

From alexander street.

CBS News Video Archive - The database contains CBS News archives from 1950s-2010s, including programs never before available for distribution, since their original broadcast dates.

Clinical Nursing Skills in Video - Collection of regularly updated demonstration and training videos produced by ProQuest to help nursing students and professionals to improve their clinical skills and provide the best possible patient care. Skills covered in the collection are specially selected by our advisory board to meet the current standards of best practice with each video demonstrating a specific clinical skill step-by-step that is explained in clear language by the narrator.

Contemporary Anthropology: Archaeological Fieldwork and Methods - This collection brings together archival and textual material relating to archaeological excavations, methods, and practices done in the late 20th century to present day.

Forensic Nursing in Video: A Symptom Media Collection - Database of video case studies detailing stories of abuse, sexual assault, and injury. Case study demonstrations include principles of trauma informed care, seeking consent, and history taking.

Music Online: Classical Music in Video, Volume 2 - This collection continues the rich tradition of Vol. 1, featuring a diverse range of musical performances showcasing classical concerto, orchestral, and choral music from the Romantic period to the Contemporary period.

Music Online: Opera in Video, Volume 2 - Volume 2 features a selection of notable opera productions and insightful documentaries from renowned artists and companies, offering a glimpse into some of the world's most celebrated and historically significant operas.

Music Online: Smithsonian Global Sound for Libraries, Volume 2 - Music Online: Smithsonian Global Sound for Libraries produced in partnership with Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, is a virtual encyclopedia of the world's musical and aural traditions. The collection provides educators, students, and interested listeners with an unprecedented variety of online resources that support the creation, continuity, and preservation of diverse musical forms. Volume 2 continues our collaboration with Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, expanding the remarkable audio archive to a wider array of American folk, blues, soul, jazz, and historic recordings, as well as a broad range of world music spanning Islamic, Central Asian, Latin and more.

National Theatre Collection, Volume 1 (Text) - National Theatre Collection brings the stage to life through access to high definition streaming video of world-class productions offering significant insight into theatre and performance studies. Through a collaboration with the U.K.'s National Theatre, this collection offers a range of digital performance resources never previously seen outside of the National Theatre’s archive. Access unique supplements to the filmed productions — exclusive digitized archival materials such as prompt scripts, costume designs, and costume bibles which provide behind-the-scenes background and contextual information.

National Theatre Collection, Volume 2 (Text) - National Theatre Collection brings the stage to life through access to high definition streaming video of world-class productions offering significant insight into theatre and performance studies. Through a collaboration with the U.K.'s National Theatre, this collection offers a range of digital performance resources never previously seen outside of the National Theatre’s archive. Access unique supplements to the filmed productions — exclusive digitized archival materials such as prompt scripts, costume designs, and costume bibles which provide behind-the-scenes background and contextual information.

The PBS Video Collection: Fifth Edition - Australia - An additional collection of PBS documentaries and series covering topics from science to history, art to Shakespeare, diversity to business & economics, and more.

The PBS Video Collection: Fifth Edition - Canada - An additional collection of PBS documentaries and series covering topics from science to history, art to Shakespeare, diversity to business & economics, and more.

The PBS Video Collection: Fifth Edition - Outside North America - An additional collection of PBS documentaries and series covering topics from science to history, art to Shakespeare, diversity to business & economics, and more.

The PBS Video Collection: Fifth Edition - United States - An additional collection of PBS documentaries and series covering topics from science to history, art to Shakespeare, diversity to business & economics, and more.

The Projectr Collection - Canada - The Projectr Collection is a curated collection of acclaimed and award-winning documentaries, short films, and fiction films from around the world, brought to you by Grasshopper Films.

The Projectr Collection - United States - The Projectr Collection is a curated collection of acclaimed and award-winning documentaries, short films, and fiction films from around the world, brought to you by Grasshopper Films.

Twentieth Century Religious Thought, Volume 5: Religion in Video - The collection of religious films and documentaries in this volume provide insights into the history, rituals, and practices of different religions, as well as the experiences of people who follow these faiths. Some titles explore the role of religion in society and its impact on individuals, while others delve into the spiritual journeys and transformations of individuals. These titles help viewers gain a deeper understanding of the social and political context surrounding practicing religion in the modern era.

Eine Globalgeschichte der Lyrik Online - The four-volume work “A Global History of Poetry” reconstructs the history of poetry from the sources. It takes a look at poetry in all documented written languages and covers a period of around 4,500 years.

Oral Poetry and Narratives from Central Arabia Online - Oral Poetry and Narratives from Central Arabia Online consists of the five volumes of P. Marcel Kurpershoek’s work on Bedouin poetry from Najd, published between 1994 and 2005. This work is the fruit of Kurpershoek’s almost twenty years of involvement with Arabian oral culture. In the work he discusses some of the striking features of the traditions collected, and their significance within the broader political, social, and cultural context of the tribal system stretching from Yemen to the Anatolian highlands.

From Oxford University Press

Business Trove - Business Trove provides seamless access to around 45 OUP textbooks, many enriched with additional learning materials, for a range of undergraduate and postgraduate programmes offered within Business Schools.

Science Trove - Science Trove is a single destination that provides online access to science textbooks from Oxford University Press, offering a breadth of material to support students throughout their undergraduate studies.

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Security, Peace, and Sustainable Development in a Troubled World

International online conference (free of charge)

September 12, 2024


The Faculty of Public Administration & The Faculty of Law

AAB College , Pristina, Republic of Kosovo

in partnership with:

University of Southeast Europe - North Macedonia Faculty of Law, University of Tirana, Albania Sakarya University-Turkey

Russia's aggression in Ukraine, in addition to bringing war back to Europe, has once again highlighted the impotence of UN peacekeeping and raised fear and uncertainty among Ukraine's neighboring countries, some of which are NATO members. This aggression has also demonstrated that Europe no longer fears the "Red Army," but rather the Russian nuclear threat. In addition to the violation of international law, with Russia's occupation of significant parts of a sovereign state's territory, the Russian aggression against Ukraine should be considered one of the most recent and relevant examples of the far-reaching effects of armed conflicts on global economies and financial markets (Pisera et al., 2024). Due to the Russian military actions, Western Europe imposed sanctions. However, these sanctions revealed the West's unpreparedness in securing energy resources, especially gas. The Visegrad countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia), deeply dependent on Russian energy, reassessed their geopolitical and energy positions (Zuk et al., 2023). Meanwhile, Germany, which had enjoyed Russian energy benefits for decades, found itself facing a situation widely perceived as a "Zeitenwende," a significant moment of distrust towards German foreign policy and security concerning Russia (Bunde, 2022).

The administrations of European countries have played an important role in coping with the crisis caused by Russian aggression. They have been essential in implementing economic sanctions and coordinating joint responses with international partners. The Israel-Gaza war, on the other hand, has affected the conscience of students in Europe and the USA. Meanwhile, Israel is challenging the calls and decisions of the International Criminal Court (ICC), which demands the arrest of the leader of Hamas and the Prime Minister of Israel, as well as the arrest of Putin for crimes in Ukraine. Several European countries have recognized the state of Palestine, while the challenge of international justice remains concerning when those accused of crimes will be able to appear before international justice courts.

Meanwhile, the Balkan region in Europe remains troubled, with authoritarian leader Dodik threatening the Dayton Peace Agreement and Serbia reluctant to reach an agreement with Kosovo. The United Nations General Assembly has approved a resolution declaring July 11 as the International Day of Remembrance for the Victims of Genocide in Srebrenica, thus recognizing the crimes committed by Serbs in Bosnia. Furthermore, authoritarianism is on the rise in the Western Balkans (Bieber, 2020), while Moscow continues to vie for influence in the region (Panagiotou, 2021). Serbia, the sole country in the region yet to impose sanctions on Russia for its aggression against Ukraine, has strengthened its strategic ties with Moscow. According to the Russian Council on International Affairs, the main principles of Russian foreign policy are to prevent as much as possible the expansion of NATO in the Balkans, keep the region as a bargaining chip for negotiations with Brussels, and maintain the notion of Slavic brotherhood and religious unity (Entina & Pivovarenko, 2019; Panagiotou, 2021).

The disputes in the Balkans remain unresolved. Kosovo and Serbia continue fruitless negotiations, while North Macedonia remains stagnant due to internal identity tensions concerning Bulgaria. The government and the new president of North Macedonia, emerging from the last elections, have declaratively challenged the agreements with Greece and expressed rigidity regarding the conclusion of the dispute with Bulgaria in the EU rapprochement process.

Kosovo, which is still not recognized by all EU countries, now has visa-free travel but remains far from EU integration, partly due to Serbian obstacles.

Therefore, the purpose of this conference is to bring together researchers, policymakers, and professionals from international relations, international law, economics, and related fields to analyze the challenges of security, justice, and economic sustainability in a troubled world.

In this respect, we invite those interested to submit an abstract addressing the above issues and the following topics, but not limited to them:

-          International justice in a conflictual world;

-          Crimes against humanity in the 21st century, challenges and specifics;

-          Inflation and welfare hardship after Russian aggression;

-          Challenges of sustainable development in the region;

-          North Macedonia amid the identity crisis, neighborhood problems, and the EU;

-          Albania and Kosovo as a stability factor in the region;

-          Challenges with the workforce in the Balkans after the lifting of visas;

-          Disinformation and hybrid warfare;

-          Emerging technologies and security implications;

-          Geostrategic changes and global security;

-          Dynamics of regional security;

-          International Criminal Law and responsibility;

-          Reconceptualization of collective security in Europe;

-          Security or Justice, the prevailing relationship, as a reflection of the war in Ukraine;

-          Peace negotiations and conflict resolution;

-          Political dynamics and ideological changes in Europe;

-          Peace and mediation in domestic and international conflicts

-          Immigration policies and their impact on regional stability;

-          Reform in justice systems to ensure equality and social justice;

-          Security challenges​ cybernetic;

-          Peace and security in the Balkan region;

-          Reconciliation and peacebuilding after conflicts: practices and experiences of public administrations

-          Public administration and the challenges of Euroscepticism in the Western Balkans

Scientific Committee

-          Lorem ipsum

-          Prof. Asst. Dr. Mentor Lecaj

-          Dr. Vrullim Buja

-          Prof. Assoc. Dr. Hasan Saliu

-          Prof. Assoc. Dr. Bashkim Rrahmani

-          Prof. Ass. Dr. Veton Vula

The organizing committee

-           Prof. Assoc. Dr. Hasan Saliu

-           Prof. Asst. Dr. Mentor Lecaj

-           Dr. Vrullim Buja

-           Prof. Asst. Dr. Fatmir Qollakaj

-           Albulena Brestovci, PhD Cand. 

-           Ganimete Ismajli, PhD Cand.  

Important dates:

Abstract submission deadline: July 15

Response to abstracts: July 20

Conference date: September 12, 2024

Participation: Free of charge

Method of presentation: In-person and online (Google Meet)

Book of Abstracts and Proceedings Book with ISBN


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  1. The Importance of English in Today's World

    Below are just five of the reasons learning English could change your life for the better. 1. English is the dominant language in academia. As of 2020, 17 of the top 20 universities in the global rankings are English-speaking. This alone shows how widely-adopted English is as the language of academia.

  2. Importance of English Essay

    200 Words Essay on The Importance of English. Learning different languages enhances the analytical and cognitive abilities of the brain. English is a widely spoken language all over the world. In today's era of Science and the Internet, it is very essential to learn English. Because it is not only the medium of communication but also the ...

  3. Importance Of English Language Essay

    Answer 2: Yes, it does. It is because English is the official language of 53 countries and we use it as a lingua franca (a mutually known language) by people from all over the world. This means that studying English can help us have a conversation with people on a global level. Share with friends.

  4. Introduction

    1984. Kachru formally introduces the term "World Englishes" at the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) Conference along with the global profile of English. Later, he proposes the three concentric circles model. Both papers are subsequently published. Kachru's three concentric circle model.

  5. World Englishes: What Are They?

    Linguistics scholar and composition instructor Ana Maria Wetzl writes, "I believe in the importance of facilitating my students' growth as multicultural users of English ready to take on the diverse linguistic landscape of academia and of the workplace." Preparing students to function and contribute within a globalized professional world ...

  6. Essay On English as a Global Language in English

    Answer 1: Many consider English as a global language because it is the one language that the majority of the population in almost every region of the world can speak and understand. Furthermore, the language enjoys worldwide acceptance and usage by every nation of the world. Therefore, it is an extremely essential global language.

  7. 1

    The Cambridge Handbook of World Englishes - January 2020. ... Susan, eds. Papers from the 5th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 245 ... 2013. The world system of Englishes: Accounting for the transnational importance of mobile and mediated vernaculars. English World-Wide 34 (3): ...

  8. (PDF) World Englishes and 'Global Englishes': competing or

    This article takes a macro look at the canon of scholarship in the. World Englishes and English as an international language para-. digms, which fundamentally derive from the work of Kachru and ...

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    A recent study by Bolton (2018) calls upon disciplinary debates and future directions in World Englishes. Globalization and language worlds have an immediate impact on World Englishes worldwide ...

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    As a worldwide language, English has without doubt reached unprecedented heights of global importance (Seidlhofer, 2011; Trudgill, 2002).With conversations across multiple country boundaries now not only inevitable (Appiah, 2006), but, for many, a daily occurrence (MacKenzie, 2011), there has been a push to rethink and rearticulate current approaches toward World Englishes research (De Costa ...

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    Esseili, Fatima; McIntosh, Kyle; Torres, Cindy; Lawrick, Elena; McMartin-Miller, Cristine; and Chang, Shih-Yu, "World Englishes: Practical Implications for Teaching and Research" (2009). English Faculty Publications. 119. This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Department of English at eCommons.

  12. World Englishes in Academic Writing: Exploring Markers ...

    Standard English is not merely a concept contested linguistically, but also ideologically (Pennycook 2000, 2008).The term is often used in the singular, where it is most often related to what McArthur referred to as 'World Standard English'.The term is also used plurally, where it may refer to the range of different varieties, such as, for example, Standard Australian English.

  13. In our rapidly changing world what is the future of the English

    The Future of English: Global Perspectives is part of a long-term research programme, which identifies key trends that will define the role of English as a global language in the coming decade. It also examines the issues and opportunities for countries around the world in achieving their goals for the use of English.

  14. The Importance of English: Role of English in Today's World

    Here are the main reasons why English is the most important in India and all over the world…. 1. Global Communication. English serves as the primary language in international business, diplomacy, science, and technology. It enables people from different countries to communicate effectively and understand each other.

  15. How the English Language Conquered the World

    English accounts for 60 percent of world internet content and is the lingua franca of pop culture and the global economy. All 100 of the world's most influential science journals publish in English.

  16. Short Essay: Importance Of English

    Importance Of English Essay Example #2. English has emerged as a dominant global language, playing a crucial role in our increasingly interconnected and globalized world. Its importance transcends borders, enabling communication, fostering cultural exchange, and providing access to educational and career opportunities.

  17. Importance of English Language Essay For Students In English

    In the global world, the importance of English cannot be denied and ignored. English serves the purpose of the common language. It helps maintain international relationships in science, technology, business, education, travel, tourism and so on. It is the language used mainly by scientists, business organizations, the internet, and higher ...


    The present paper highlights the importance of English as a global language as most of the world's communications is done in English. It also reveals how English is being widely used in scientific ...

  19. The Importance Of World English

    World English is needed for networking, making contracts, and is used in any general work relationship. • I have found that English is becoming the main language used in the business world. This is because one dominant language makes it easier for people to communicate with each other. It is being taught around the world and many companies ...

  20. Essay on Importance of English

    250 Words Essay on Importance of English Introduction. English is more than just a language; it is a key to global communication and understanding. Its importance cannot be overstated in an increasingly interconnected and globalized world. English: A Lingua Franca. English is the lingua franca of the world, enabling communication across cultures.

  21. English language hegemony: retrospect and prospect

    The pervasive role of English as the "world language" in scientific, economic, academic, and political discourse is now widely acknowledged amidst intensifying globalization (Genç & Bada ...

  22. Importance of English Language Essay

    Long Essay on Importance of English Language 500 Words in English. Long Essay on Importance of English Language is usually given to classes 7, 8, 9, and 10. English is named after an ancient Germanic people, Angles, who migrated to then Great Britain, which is England today. It is an official language in over 67 countries and has more than 35 ...

  23. How 'Eruption,' the new Michael Crichton novel completed with James

    Founded in 1846, AP today remains the most trusted source of fast, accurate, unbiased news in all formats and the essential provider of the technology and services vital to the news business. More than half the world's population sees AP journalism every day.

  24. World Englishes and Their Implications for University Education

    The present study is aimed at exploring the impact that World Englishes have had on univers ity. education in the field of English philology and culture, focusing on the study programmes run by ...

  25. IMF Working Papers

    This study investigates the relationship between the adoption of renewable energy and the sensitivity of inflation to changes in fossil energy prices across 69 countries over a 50-year period from 1973 to 2022. In the wake of recently increased oil and gas prices leading to a surge in inflation, the notion of a "divine coincidence" suggests that higher levels of renewable energy adoption ...

  26. WorldCat Discovery release notes, 6 June 2024

    Support information for this product and related products can be found at: If you have additional questions, please contact OCLC Customer Service by calling 1-800-848-5800 or 1-614-793-8682 Monday - Friday 8 a.m. - 7 p.m. ET, or email [email protected].

  27. cfp

    The administrations of European countries have played an important role in coping with the crisis caused by Russian aggression. They have been essential in implementing economic sanctions and coordinating joint responses with international partners. The Israel-Gaza war, on the other hand, has affected the conscience of students in Europe and ...