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How to Write a Dissertation Conclusion – Example & Tips

Published by Jamie Walker at August 13th, 2021 , Revised On August 22, 2023

It is imperative for students to understand how to  write a dissertation  conclusion in order to achieve the highest grade in their dissertation project.

The concluding chapter of the dissertation should be appealing to the readers and give an accurate but concise review of what your research revolves around with special emphasis on the outcomes  and recommendations that you have derived from your research study.

The illustration below provides an insight into  how a first-class dissertation is structured , and we will now look in complete detail over how to manage the conclusion chapter of your dissertation.

The conclusion of a dissertation or thesis generally connects the beginning of your research ( introduction ,  research problem ,  research questions ) to the findings and implications of your research.

You must relate to the major  findings of your research  and answer the research questions that your study raised. There is no need to hesitate to state the limitations of research because it is natural that your research will have some limitations rather than none.

Writing a dissertation conclusion is, perhaps, the most critical aspect of your research work which is why it is vitally important to not miss out on the key elements surrounding a great dissertation conclusion.

Dissertation Conclusion Guidelines

Dissertation conclusion is a core element of your dissertation or thesis paper which is why you will be required to follow a specific set of guidelines in order to showcase the findings of your study in a logical manner.

How to Start a Dissertation Conclusion

Always write your conclusion in clear and simple language.  Before starting to write the conclusion chapter, it is important that students become familiar with the assessment criteria and expected outcomes in order to avoid complexities at a later stage.

The aim of a dissertation conclusion is to provide a brief overview of the main research work so the readers can figure out how your research study will add value to the existing literature.

Moreover, recommendations for future research and practitioners should also be provided in this section.

Difference between Conclusion & Discussion

The contents of the  discussion  and conclusion chapters are similar, and they are typically grouped together in journal articles and scientific papers.

Depending on your academic institute and the subject of your degree program, you could be asked to put discussion and conclusion together under the same chapter in your dissertation or thesis paper.

However, typically in a  dissertation or thesis paper , it is common to have a separate chapter for the conclusion to briefly state answers for all research questions, and summarise and reflect on the research.

The conclusion chapter is considerably shorter in length than the discussion. Here you will be expected to provide general statements to give readers a final impression of your research.

On the other hand, in the discussion chapter of a dissertation , the author states the major findings, and their interpretations and implications.

Do not introduce any new information, arguments, meanings, and interpretations in the conclusion chapter.

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What to Write in a Conclusion

An important question that one must address before writing a dissertation conclusion is what to write in a conclusion?

In the best case scenario, you will summarise the findings of your entire research in a comprehensive manner, but at the same time ensure that you are not just restating the points covered in the main body.

The purpose here is to present a synthesis of the major points covered which is why it is advised not to include any new ideas relating to your research at this point.

Methodology in a dissertation  can be a taxing and time consuming matter because a large chunk of your research is based on the methods you have adopted.

Essentially, the methodology should relate to the literature you have reviewed and provide academic justification to your  choice of research methods  – be it quantitative, qualitative or a mix of both.

Students must make sure that they shed adequate light on the methodology part in their dissertation conclusion.

It is essential to keep the dissertation conclusion concise and to the point rather than going into unnecessary details which would rather be a part of the main body.

Writing a dissertation conclusion is not a strenuous task if you stick to the fact that your goal here is to provide insight, evaluations and implications of your research study.

Structuring a Dissertation Conclusion

While writing a dissertation conclusion, you must be particular about the fact that it gives reflection of a cohesive argument and supports the points you have covered in the main body.

Your conclusion should depict the importance of why you chose this  specific research topic  and the impact your study will have on the society.

Providing solutions to the problems you have identified and predicting what might happen in the near future leaves a very good impression on the readers, and some of them might well be inclined to consider your argument long after.

When pondering over how to write a dissertation conclusion, it is important to relate your ideas with academics who are closely followed by your supervisor.

Although the dissertation belongs to you and you have the full right to express your own views where appropriate, there is absolutely no harm in slightly aligning your views with other researchers in order to achieve a good score.

Dissertation Conclusion Limitations

Every dissertation is likely to suffer from limitations which is precisely the reason why students must acknowledge and appropriately address them.

Limitations is an integral part of your dissertation conclusion because it will also help your readers to  understand your research design and philosophical approach .

This brief segment reflects upon the importance of the inherent limitations been identified; the reasons behind your choice of methods; and possible ways to counter the limitations.

It is recommended never to hide the limitations associated with your research, because your tutor will probably have years of experience with  different methods of research  and they will figure out these limitations even if you have not specifically discussed them.

Simply highlighting the dissertation limitations is not a very good idea because every research limitation must accompany ways in which it can be combated. Dissertation limitations can be methodological or conceptual.

It is necessary to briefly touch upon both types of limitations so your supervisor can figure out what part of your research was stalled by lack of data, cultural biases, sampling etc.

This section of the dissertation conclusion chapter is generally based on a world count – 200-500 words so it is appropriate to discuss only the most significant limitations of your study.

Dissertation Conclusion Length

Another important question that you might want to address in the final phase of your research work is how long should dissertation conclusion be? The length of a dissertation conclusion is in direct correlation with the length of the full dissertation paper.

On a simple basis the longer or more detailed your research is, the longer the conclusion it will have, and vice versa. The length will often depend on the writer’s personal judgement and making a call on such a matter might well turn out to be the difference between an ordinary and  professional dissertation writer.

The length of a dissertation conclusion chapter is generally 5-7% of the total dissertation word count.

Addressing Research Questions in Dissertation Conclusion

Make sure that you start your conclusion chapter by directly addressing the  research questions  or the  research problem  that your dissertation or thesis intended to address.

Conclusion chapter gives you the final chance to demonstrate to your readers that your research achieved what was aimed at the beginning of the research.

Provide a clear, concise and to the point answer to your research questions. You are not expected to repeat what you have already said in the discussion part of the paper, rather turn readers’ attentions towards a final outcome.

Dissertation Conclusion Example

No matter how much you dig into the details of writing a conclusion for your dissertation, it is always nice to have a look at a full-fledged example for guidance purposes. The graphic below gives a summarised view of what is to be written in a dissertation conclusion.

Here is an example of how to write a dissertation conclusion to help you better understand.

How to Write Dissertation Conclusion Example

Here is a dissertation conclusion example of a dissertation that aimed to test a theoretical argument based on an analysis of a case study; Proposed anaerobic digestion plant in Tripoli.

Chapter 5 – Dissertation Conclusion 5.1 Background This chapter highlights the crux of the study by briefly describing objectives and literature survey. The feasibility of the proposed plant is then discussed, leading to the study’s limitations and difficulties. In the end, some recommendations for future work are provided in brief. Some suggestions to improve and highlight the renewable energy generation techniques are also part of the chapter. 5.2 Literature Review, Survey and Interviews A Valora process AD plant, with a capacity of 0.8 tones of food waste per day, is proposed to be established in the city of Tripoli. This plant can assist the national grid in meeting the rising demands of electricity in Tripoli and on the outskirts. Public opinion about establishing such a plant is taken by conducting a survey. The survey results suggest that the people of Tripoli understand the need for a WTE plant and ensure their cooperation for the separate household food waste if provided with the containers by the municipal authorities. The food waste to energy generation plant provides a solution for both household food waste management in Tripoli and generating an adequate amount of electricity to meet the rising demand. An informal session of interviews has been conducted with the experts from the Energy Agency of Libya. The opinion and observation-based data collection are done in order to opt for the interpretive approach of research adequately. All five respondents recommended the idea of establishing an AD plant in Tripoli-Libya. Their comments and suggestions have also validated the plant location selected in the research as an appropriate location for establishing a plant. The idea of energy generation using sustainable methods is the main point they’ve endorsed. The research provides the solution for both; waste management in Tripoli and the introduction of sustainable energy generation methods in Libya. 5.3 Feasibility of the Proposed System A detailed, feasibly study was conducted, including technical details such as the amount of biogas generation, plant type, equipment sizing, and proposed location for the plant. Initial finances, operation and management costs of the proposed AD plant are estimated in the financial analysis of the proposed plant. Life cycle assessment is compared with food waste management to evaluate the environmental effects of the plant. The analysis suggests that the proposed AD plant is economically, technically and ecologically feasible to establish on 3rd Ring Road in Tripoli. 5.4 Limitations and Difficulties Some of the limitations and difficulties involved in the process of digestion or establishing a digestion plant are listed as follows; 1. Since many WTE technologies are designed to handle mixed-type food waste such as solid waste and municipal waste etc. Running the plant with specifically food waste is difficult as food waste makes comparatively less amount than MSW as a whole. 2. Some other WTE challenges include high capital cost, waste-gas cleanup, regulatory hurdles, and conversion efficiency. 3. Since domestic utilization of generated electricity is a primary objective, and it adds a limitation where even distribution of electricity distribution in domestic buildings is not possible if the plant is located outside the residential area. This issue can be resolved by centralizing a substation for the proper transmission and distribution. 4. Since the accuracy of the estimated analysis depends entirely on the data, and missing fields affect the accuracy of the estimations. 5. Since the survey is conducted among non-technical people and represents their views, no primary data is available that accurately estimates the energy generation from the amount of food or biogas generation. The calculations of estimation of biogas yield and energy generation are based on the equations taken from secondary resources thus can be erroneous. 5.5 Future Work This study is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of establishing a large-scale plant to provide an alternative and renewable energy solution. The whole idea is applicable and implementable in the proposed area. Instead, in the future, the idea can be evaluated for the individual high-rise buildings to make them self-sufficient in energy demand and supply and to reduce the load on the national electricity grid. A cross-national study involving cost-benefit analysis of family-sized digesters in Tripoli is yet to analyze in order to predict the future of biogas technology in Libya. Information about government subsidies on renewable energy generation plants in Tripoli is important but unknown yet. This study revolves around the utilization of food waste collected from residential buildings only. Although hotels, restaurants, and canteens can also provide a considerably high amount of food waste and it is relatively easy for them to collect it separately. Thus further work can be based on the food waste collection from the food consumption areas. It is important to remember that there is no need to restate the research objectives in conclusion. Your statements should incorporate answers to research questions without you having to repeat those questions. Here is another example of dissertation conclusion.

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Summarising and Reflecting on Research

As mentioned before, the conclusion chapter gives you that final opportunity to restate what your research study intended to achieve, what approach you took in the process, where  findings  you came up as a result of your study, and whether or not they were according to your expectations. In short, a conclusion section needs to provide an overview of the building blocks of your research.

It is common to use a reflective style of writing here, rather than simply restating what you have already written in the previous chapters. This approach will also help you to avoid repetition.

For example, if there were limitations of your chosen research methodology then you might want to briefly state whether or not that could have influenced the results of your research study. You can also highlight any new insights that you recorded during the process.

Focus more on the positives of your study although you will be expected to concisely state the limitations of your research as well.

The research approach employed for this research study provided new insight into B even though it limited the generalizability of findings.

Recommendations for Future in Conclusion Chapter

Although it is common to provide recommendations for future research work in the discussion chapter, it will be a good idea to provide an overview of those endorsements in the conclusion chapter with a focus on the practical and theoretical consequences of your results.

Practitioners should consider A and B based on these conclusions….Further research needs to be conducted for better understanding in regards to the implications of these findings….The effects of the relationship between A and B are still unclear, and so further research must be conducted…

Research pertaining to a dissertation or thesis is usually expected to discover, enlighten, and educate rather than frame the results as essentials for practitioners and policymakers.

Any recommendations related to business, application, and strategy should be presented as propositions to avoid overstating the appositeness of your work.

Never undermine your research work when making propositions for future research. Your work should be recognized as complete, thorough, and reliable without the need for further research to confirm your conclusions.

Stress the Importance of Your Research in Conclusion

You don’t want your readers to leave with the impression that your work did not make a valuable contribution to the existing knowledge in your area of study. Here are some ideas to demonstrate how this is done;

  • Referring back to the problem statement to help readers understand how your work addresses the research problem originally identified.
  • Elaborate how your results validated or tested an existing hypothesis or theory.
  • Stating how your research was able to fill a certain gap in existing knowledge as pointed out in the literature review.

Again, it is recommended to avoid repetition. You do not want to reiterate what you have already discussed in the previous chapter.

Dissertation Conclusion Help from Experts

Writing a dissertation is no mean feat because it requires complete dedication and attention to detail in order to secure a good grade.

Even the very first part of your dissertation – topic selection can become a cumbersome task because of the  need to select a topic with a sufficient amount of literature available on it.

Despite putting in a lot of effort, you might still end up with a grade that is well below your own expectations which is why it is sometimes better off to approach professionals providing dissertation writing services so that the complexities surrounding a top-quality dissertation are handled by people with specialized skill set.

As we approach the conclusion of this piece, it should be clear by now as to what students are expected to do in the final phase of their dissertations. In short, they should have a clear idea about  how to write a dissertation conclusion .

Finally, it is important not to let yourself down by writing a mediocre conclusion and consequently lose crucial marks. The hard part of your dissertation is already completed so it is worthwhile to put in a concentrated effort to end on a high and impress your supervisor.

Struggling with any Chapter of your Dissertation?

Whether it is your dissertation introduction, literature review, methodology, conclusion or any other chapter, our expert dissertation writers can help you succeed. With our dissertation chapter writing service, you can be confident of having your individual chapters completed to your school’s exact guidelines. Click here to learn more about our dissertation chapter writing service. Find out how our dissertation services can help you.

Frequently Asked Questions

How many pages is a dissertation conclusion.

The length of a dissertation conclusion varies but is typically around 1 to 2 pages. It succinctly summarizes key findings, discusses implications, and restates the significance of the study, providing a resolution to the research.

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Writing a dissertation can be tough if this is the first time you are doing it. You need to look into relevant literature, analyze past researches, conduct surveys, interviews etc.






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How to write an excellent thesis conclusion [with examples]

Tips for writing thesis conclusion

Restate the thesis

Review or reiterate key points of your work, explain why your work is relevant, a take-away for the reader, more resources on writing thesis conclusions, frequently asked questions about writing an excellent thesis conclusion, related articles.

At this point in your writing, you have most likely finished your introduction and the body of your thesis, dissertation, or research paper . While this is a reason to celebrate, you should not underestimate the importance of your conclusion. The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable.

A good conclusion will review the key points of the thesis and explain to the reader why the information is relevant, applicable, or related to the world as a whole. Make sure to dedicate enough of your writing time to the conclusion and do not put it off until the very last minute.

This article provides an effective technique for writing a conclusion adapted from Erika Eby’s The College Student's Guide to Writing a Good Research Paper: 101 Easy Tips & Tricks to Make Your Work Stand Out .

While the thesis introduction starts out with broad statements about the topic, and then narrows it down to the thesis statement , a thesis conclusion does the same in the opposite order.

  • Restate the thesis.
  • Review or reiterate key points of your work.
  • Explain why your work is relevant.
  • Include a core take-away message for the reader.

Tip: Don’t just copy and paste your thesis into your conclusion. Restate it in different words.

The best way to start a conclusion is simply by restating the thesis statement. That does not mean just copying and pasting it from the introduction, but putting it into different words.

You will need to change the structure and wording of it to avoid sounding repetitive. Also, be firm in your conclusion just as you were in the introduction. Try to avoid sounding apologetic by using phrases like "This paper has tried to show..."

The conclusion should address all the same parts as the thesis while making it clear that the reader has reached the end. You are telling the reader that your research is finished and what your findings are.

I have argued throughout this work that the point of critical mass for biopolitical immunity occurred during the Romantic period because of that era's unique combination of post-revolutionary politics and innovations in smallpox prevention. In particular, I demonstrated that the French Revolution and the discovery of vaccination in the 1790s triggered a reconsideration of the relationship between bodies and the state.

Tip: Try to reiterate points from your introduction in your thesis conclusion.

The next step is to review the main points of the thesis as a whole. Look back at the body of of your project and make a note of the key ideas. You can reword these ideas the same way you reworded your thesis statement and then incorporate that into the conclusion.

You can also repeat striking quotations or statistics, but do not use more than two. As the conclusion represents your own closing thoughts on the topic , it should mainly consist of your own words.

In addition, conclusions can contain recommendations to the reader or relevant questions that further the thesis. You should ask yourself:

  • What you would ideally like to see your readers do in reaction to your paper?
  • Do you want them to take a certain action or investigate further?
  • Is there a bigger issue that your paper wants to draw attention to?

Also, try to reference your introduction in your conclusion. You have already taken a first step by restating your thesis. Now, check whether there are other key words, phrases or ideas that are mentioned in your introduction that fit into your conclusion. Connecting the introduction to the conclusion in this way will help readers feel satisfied.

I explored how Mary Wollstonecraft, in both her fiction and political writings, envisions an ideal medico-political state, and how other writers like William Wordsworth and Mary Shelley increasingly imagined the body politic literally, as an incorporated political collective made up of bodies whose immunity to political and medical ills was essential to a healthy state.

Tip: Make sure to explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research.

Although you can encourage readers to question their opinions and reflect on your topic, do not leave loose ends. You should provide a sense of resolution and make sure your conclusion wraps up your argument. Make sure you explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research and how your research intervenes within, or substantially revises, existing scholarly debates.

This project challenged conventional ideas about the relationship among Romanticism, medicine, and politics by reading the unfolding of Romantic literature and biopolitical immunity as mutual, co-productive processes. In doing so, this thesis revises the ways in which biopolitics has been theorized by insisting on the inherent connections between Romantic literature and the forms of biopower that characterize early modernity.

Tip: If you began your thesis with an anecdote or historical example, you may want to return to that in your conclusion.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as:

  • a call to action
  • a recommendation
  • a gesture towards future research
  • a brief explanation of how the problem or idea you covered remains relevant

Ultimately, you want readers to feel more informed, or ready to act, as they read your conclusion.

Yet, the Romantic period is only the beginning of modern thought on immunity and biopolitics. Victorian writers, doctors, and politicians upheld the Romantic idea that a "healthy state" was a literal condition that could be achieved by combining politics and medicine, but augmented that idea through legislation and widespread public health measures. While many nineteenth-century efforts to improve citizens' health were successful, the fight against disease ultimately changed course in the twentieth century as global immunological threats such as SARS occupied public consciousness. Indeed, as subsequent public health events make apparent, biopolitical immunity persists as a viable concept for thinking about the relationship between medicine and politics in modernity.

Need more advice? Read our 5 additional tips on how to write a good thesis conclusion.

The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable. To write a great thesis conclusion you should:

The basic content of a conclusion is to review the main points from the paper. This part represents your own closing thoughts on the topic. It should mainly consist of the outcome of the research in your own words.

The length of the conclusion will depend on the length of the whole thesis. Usually, a conclusion should be around 5-7% of the overall word count.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as a question, warning, or call to action. Depending on the topic, you can also end with a recommendation.

In Open Access: Theses and Dissertations you can find thousands of completed works. Take a look at any of the theses or dissertations for real-life examples of conclusions that were already approved.

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How to Write a Relevant Conclusion for Your Dissertation

Dissertation Conclusion

The last portion of your dissertation is called the conclusion. The objective of the dissertation conclusion is to answer the primary question of the research, provide a summary of the research, make recommendations for possible research on the subject and list the new information that your research contributes to the field.

Although the discussion and the conclusion have similar elements, they are not the same. They may be combined in shorter journal articles and papers. However, in a thesis, both the conclusion and discussion must be included.

While a discussion includes specific interpretations and results, the conclusion makes broader statements to sum up all the important points of your research.

Writing a good conclusion is important to clarify the main discoveries and arguments of your research. Here are some tips on how to conclude a thesis.

Provide Answers to The Primary Question in Your Research

The first step is to understand how to start a conclusion. It must begin with the key question of your dissertation. This allows you to show the results of your work. It must be clear and concise. You do not have to repeat all the results discussed along the thesis. Just combine them into a few words that will become the final takeaway for readers.

For example, the conclusion for a dissertation that aims at making theoretical arguments by analysing case studies, the beginning can be as follows:

“A detailed analysis of the changing representations of the UK border policy and migration over the last ten years, the influence of media discourse in political decision making is highlighted in this dissertation”

Summarise Your Research

The thesis conclusion gives your readers a reminder about why you approached a topic in a certain way. You must summarize the expected results and the actual results that matched these expectations.

The summary should not have too many repetitions. It is not meant to summarize every chapter. Instead, it must reflect your views and ideas that were developed through the course of the thesis. This is also a good opportunity to list any limitations in the research. You can also highlight why your methodology was best suited for the topic discussed.

Here is an example of how to restate thesis in conclusion:

This research evidently shows “X” while raising a few questions about “Y”. In keeping with the example provided above, the summary can begin as follows: “In addition to showcasing the various representations of UK border policy, this thesis also raises questions on the credibility of media exposure in these representations.”

Provide Recommendations

In the discussion of your research, you may have provided possible areas to explore in future research. However, with the conclusion, you can elaborate on these suggestions. Make sure you include the implications of all your findings in the field of study.

These examples will help you understand ways to start a dissertation conclusion recommendation:

“Further research is required to determine the relationship between the changing political views on migration and their effect on global economy”, or, “Based on the conclusions of this research, practitioners may consider studying the relationship between migration and economy”

Make sure that you do not exaggerate how applicable your research is. Instead, provide broader statements to highlight important insights of your thesis. Remember, the conclusion must not include any new interpretations, data or arguments.

Highlight the Contributions of You Research

A good thesis is one that provides some new knowledge to a particular field of study. This gives your readers a very strong impression about the contributions of your thesis. You can highlight the contributions of your research in different ways as mentioned below:

  • Go back to the problem statement and explain how your thesis has helped solve it.
  • Use references from the literature review to showcase how your research has addressed any gaps in information.
  • Write about how the results of your thesis challenges existing assumptions and theories.

You need to make sure that you do not repeat information that has already been covered in the discussion. Choose only the important points and provide a brief overview.

Complete the Dissertation

Once the conclusion is written, there are a few final steps to complete your dissertation:

  • Write the thesis abstract in 200 words or less .
  • Review your reference list and format it as per the writing style. You can also use online reference generators to speed up this process.
  • Create the table of contents and complete the title page .

Make sure you review the document completely to ensure that there are no language errors.

Dissertation Conclusion Checklist

To make sure that you have understood the essence of the conclusion, compare this checklist with any available dissertation conclusion sample:

The research question is answered The argument is summarised There is some reflection on the methods and results Limitations, if any, are highlighted The most relevant recommendations are discussed The important contributions of the thesis are explained clearly There is no inclusion of new data

If you need any thesis writing help or wish to read through example of conclusion in thesis, our experts are always ready to help you. Get in touch with us now to create an impressive conclusion for your thesis.

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Writing a Research Paper Conclusion | Step-by-Step Guide

Published on October 30, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on April 13, 2023.

  • Restate the problem statement addressed in the paper
  • Summarize your overall arguments or findings
  • Suggest the key takeaways from your paper

Research paper conclusion

The content of the conclusion varies depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument through engagement with sources .

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Table of contents

Step 1: restate the problem, step 2: sum up the paper, step 3: discuss the implications, research paper conclusion examples, frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.

The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem . You will have discussed this problem in depth throughout the body, but now the point is to zoom back out from the details to the bigger picture.

While you are restating a problem you’ve already introduced, you should avoid phrasing it identically to how it appeared in the introduction . Ideally, you’ll find a novel way to circle back to the problem from the more detailed ideas discussed in the body.

For example, an argumentative paper advocating new measures to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture might restate its problem as follows:

Meanwhile, an empirical paper studying the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues might present its problem like this:

“In conclusion …”

Avoid starting your conclusion with phrases like “In conclusion” or “To conclude,” as this can come across as too obvious and make your writing seem unsophisticated. The content and placement of your conclusion should make its function clear without the need for additional signposting.

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Having zoomed back in on the problem, it’s time to summarize how the body of the paper went about addressing it, and what conclusions this approach led to.

Depending on the nature of your research paper, this might mean restating your thesis and arguments, or summarizing your overall findings.

Argumentative paper: Restate your thesis and arguments

In an argumentative paper, you will have presented a thesis statement in your introduction, expressing the overall claim your paper argues for. In the conclusion, you should restate the thesis and show how it has been developed through the body of the paper.

Briefly summarize the key arguments made in the body, showing how each of them contributes to proving your thesis. You may also mention any counterarguments you addressed, emphasizing why your thesis holds up against them, particularly if your argument is a controversial one.

Don’t go into the details of your evidence or present new ideas; focus on outlining in broad strokes the argument you have made.

Empirical paper: Summarize your findings

In an empirical paper, this is the time to summarize your key findings. Don’t go into great detail here (you will have presented your in-depth results and discussion already), but do clearly express the answers to the research questions you investigated.

Describe your main findings, even if they weren’t necessarily the ones you expected or hoped for, and explain the overall conclusion they led you to.

Having summed up your key arguments or findings, the conclusion ends by considering the broader implications of your research. This means expressing the key takeaways, practical or theoretical, from your paper—often in the form of a call for action or suggestions for future research.

Argumentative paper: Strong closing statement

An argumentative paper generally ends with a strong closing statement. In the case of a practical argument, make a call for action: What actions do you think should be taken by the people or organizations concerned in response to your argument?

If your topic is more theoretical and unsuitable for a call for action, your closing statement should express the significance of your argument—for example, in proposing a new understanding of a topic or laying the groundwork for future research.

Empirical paper: Future research directions

In a more empirical paper, you can close by either making recommendations for practice (for example, in clinical or policy papers), or suggesting directions for future research.

Whatever the scope of your own research, there will always be room for further investigation of related topics, and you’ll often discover new questions and problems during the research process .

Finish your paper on a forward-looking note by suggesting how you or other researchers might build on this topic in the future and address any limitations of the current paper.

Full examples of research paper conclusions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.

  • Argumentative paper
  • Empirical paper

While the role of cattle in climate change is by now common knowledge, countries like the Netherlands continually fail to confront this issue with the urgency it deserves. The evidence is clear: To create a truly futureproof agricultural sector, Dutch farmers must be incentivized to transition from livestock farming to sustainable vegetable farming. As well as dramatically lowering emissions, plant-based agriculture, if approached in the right way, can produce more food with less land, providing opportunities for nature regeneration areas that will themselves contribute to climate targets. Although this approach would have economic ramifications, from a long-term perspective, it would represent a significant step towards a more sustainable and resilient national economy. Transitioning to sustainable vegetable farming will make the Netherlands greener and healthier, setting an example for other European governments. Farmers, policymakers, and consumers must focus on the future, not just on their own short-term interests, and work to implement this transition now.

As social media becomes increasingly central to young people’s everyday lives, it is important to understand how different platforms affect their developing self-conception. By testing the effect of daily Instagram use among teenage girls, this study established that highly visual social media does indeed have a significant effect on body image concerns, with a strong correlation between the amount of time spent on the platform and participants’ self-reported dissatisfaction with their appearance. However, the strength of this effect was moderated by pre-test self-esteem ratings: Participants with higher self-esteem were less likely to experience an increase in body image concerns after using Instagram. This suggests that, while Instagram does impact body image, it is also important to consider the wider social and psychological context in which this usage occurs: Teenagers who are already predisposed to self-esteem issues may be at greater risk of experiencing negative effects. Future research into Instagram and other highly visual social media should focus on establishing a clearer picture of how self-esteem and related constructs influence young people’s experiences of these platforms. Furthermore, while this experiment measured Instagram usage in terms of time spent on the platform, observational studies are required to gain more insight into different patterns of usage—to investigate, for instance, whether active posting is associated with different effects than passive consumption of social media content.

If you’re unsure about the conclusion, it can be helpful to ask a friend or fellow student to read your conclusion and summarize the main takeaways.

  • Do they understand from your conclusion what your research was about?
  • Are they able to summarize the implications of your findings?
  • Can they answer your research question based on your conclusion?

You can also get an expert to proofread and feedback your paper with a paper editing service .

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conclusion for dissertation project

The conclusion of a research paper has several key elements you should make sure to include:

  • A restatement of the research problem
  • A summary of your key arguments and/or findings
  • A short discussion of the implications of your research

No, it’s not appropriate to present new arguments or evidence in the conclusion . While you might be tempted to save a striking argument for last, research papers follow a more formal structure than this.

All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the results and discussion sections if you are following a scientific structure). The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.

Cite this Scribbr article

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Caulfield, J. (2023, April 13). Writing a Research Paper Conclusion | Step-by-Step Guide. Scribbr. Retrieved July 10, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/research-paper/research-paper-conclusion/

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How to Write a Dissertation & Thesis Conclusion (+ Examples)


  • Tags: Academic Writing , Language , Writing Tips

Want to create a strong, impactful conclusion? Explore how to create a dissertation and thesis conclusion in 5 simple steps! To help you understand better, we’ve also included useful dissertation and thesis conclusion examples! 

Whether you want to write a conclusion for an empirical or humanities paper, this article will help. So without delay, let’s understand how to create the best conclusion! 

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Firstly, let’s know more about the appropriate length of a dissertation and thesis conclusion. 

What is the length of a conclusion? 

Depending on the complexity of your research and document length, the length will differ. The thesis or dissertation conclusion should be 5-7% of your paper’s overall word count. For example, if your thesis is 30,000 words, the conclusion can be 1,500-2100 words. 

The conclusion for empirical or scientific theses or dissertations is often brief. It summarizes the main findings, interprets the research, and discusses the main implications in a few words. In contrast, the thesis or dissertation conclusion for humanities subjects is longer and more reflective. 

Now let’s see how to write a conclusion for a thesis/ dissertation in 5 steps! 

How to write a dissertation and thesis conclusion 

1. remind readers of the research purpose .

For an empirical paper, start your conclusion by revisiting your research question or hypotheses stated earlier in your research. This reminds readers of your study’s main focus and sets the stage for findings. Following is an example: 

“This study aimed to investigate the relationship between employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the healthcare industry.” 

In comparison, while writing the conclusion for a humanities paper, reflect on the research journey. You can also consider the key themes , ideas, arguments, and questions that have guided your research. Here is an example: 

“Throughout this thesis, the concept of identity formation in postcolonial literature has been explored, focusing on the works of Chinua Achebe and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. The central argument claimed that these authors utilize their narratives to challenge Western hegemonic discourses and assert the agency of African identities.” 

2. Summarize main insights 

For an empirical paper, summarize your main results and findings concisely. This section should highlight the most significant research outcomes and how they relate to your research questions, hypotheses or research methodology . Here is an example: 

“The results of this study demonstrated a significant positive correlation between employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that job satisfaction, along with factors such as work-life balance and leadership support, accounted for 65% of the variance in organizational commitment scores.” 

On the other hand, if it’s a humanities paper, you can summarize any evidence or examples that support your claims about the research in your conclusion. Here is an example: 

“The analysis of Achebe’s ‘Things Fall Apart’ and Adichie’s ‘Purple Hibiscus’ reveals a common thread of resistance against colonial oppression and the assertion of African identity. Both authors employ narrative techniques that subvert Western stereotypes and provide a nuanced portrayal of African experiences. Through their characters’ journeys, Achebe and Adichie challenge the notion of a singular African identity and highlight the complexities of postcolonial life.”

3. Suggest practical applications, future recommendations, and limitations 

Mention how your research can be practically applied (if relevant) and make suggestions for future research. Explain the broader significance of your findings while writing a dissertation conclusion/thesis conclusion. If there are any limitations, you can add them to this part. Here is an example: 

“The findings have implications for healthcare organizations aiming to improve employee retention and well-being, with potential benefits for patient care and organizational performance. However, the study’s limitations, such as its specific sample size and setting make it difficult to generalize these findings. Further research is needed to explore the effectiveness of interventions targeting these factors across diverse healthcare contexts and to investigate additional variables that may impact organizational commitment.” 

In contrast, here is another conclusion example for an empirical paper: 

“The comparative analysis of Achebe and Adichie’s works has significant implications for the study of postcolonial literature. By highlighting the diversity of African experiences and the importance of cultural identity, these authors challenge the notion of a monolithic African narrative. This research also raises important questions about the role of literature in shaping cultural perceptions and the impact of colonialism on contemporary African societies.”

Browse through the next step of how to write a conclusion for a dissertation/thesis! This step demonstrates your research’s importance in a broader context. 

4. Highlight your research’s significance

In this part, write about how your research has contributed new knowledge to your field. You can briefly explain how the research conducted has filled a gap in your field of study. By using relevant academic research resources like Google Scholar, you can understand the research already conducted and use relevant references in your conclusion. 

If your research proves or disproves a certain theory or assumption, you can mention that. Also, if you’ve mentioned the gap in the literature review , you can remind readers about this. 

Here is an example of how to highlight your research’s significance for an empirical paper: 

“This study contributes to the growing body of research on the impact of social media on adolescent mental health. By utilizing a longitudinal design and a large, diverse sample, this study provides robust evidence for the relationship between social media usage and negative mental health outcomes. The findings also highlight the importance of considering the role of specific social media platforms and usage patterns in shaping mental health, which has been overlooked in previous research.” 

In contrast, in a humanities paper, you should focus on how your insights contribute to the broader discourse in your field and any new perspectives or interpretations.

Following is an example: 

“This comparative analysis of Achebe and Adichie’s works contributes to the growing body of postcolonial literary criticism by highlighting the importance of considering the diversity of African experiences and the ongoing impact of colonialism on contemporary African societies. By focusing on the theme of cultural identity and the use of narrative techniques that subvert Western stereotypes, this research offers a new lens through which to interpret these authors’ works and their significance within the canon of African literature.” 

Now, let’s understand the last step of how to write a dissertation conclusion/thesis conclusion! 

5. Strongly conclude your thesis or dissertation 

End with an impactful statement that summarizes a key takeaway or highlights your work’s broader significance. 

Here is an example of an empirical paper conclusion: 

“By investing in evidence-based strategies to promote mental health in the workplace, we can foster a more resilient and productive workforce for the future.” 

In contrast, the following is an example of the final statement for a humanities paper: 

“In the final analysis, the enduring legacy of these writers lies in their ability to touch the depths of the human soul, awakening us to the transformative power of language, story, and imagination.” 

After concluding your thesis, to enhance your thesis further, you can take the help of online thesis editing and proofreading services . Now let us see the dos and don’ts to follow while writing a thesis conclusion! 

Dos and don’ts while writing a conclusion 

Suggested sentence structures for framing the conclusion 

Depending on whether you’re writing an empirical or humanities paper, you can use and customize these sentence structures for your thesis or dissertation conclusion. 

  • This study aimed to investigate the… 
  • The results of this study demonstrate that…
  • The analysis of the data revealed that… 
  • The findings of this study have significant implications for…
  • The insights gained from this research have important implications for…
  • The key findings of this research indicate… 
  • Further research is needed to explore….
  • By investigating [write the research purpose], this study found out [write the main findings]. 
  • This study makes a notable contribution to the field of…[field name] by [write the contribution] 
  • While this study demonstrates the potential for [practical application], further research is required to explore…
  • To conclude, the insights gained from this research…
  • This dissertation fills a crucial gap in the literature by…
  • This study offers valuable insights that can…
  • In summary, this study…
  • In closing, this dissertation…

This concludes our guide about how to write a thesis conclusion and dissertation conclusion. You can bookmark this article to revisit any thesis and dissertation conclusion examples. Once you write the conclusion and complete your paper, you’ll need to edit and proofread your thesis or dissertation. As experts in editing and proofreading services , we’d love to help you perfect your paper! 

Here are some other articles you might find interesting: 

  • Thesis Editing | Definition, Scope & Standard Rates
  • Academic Writing in 2024: 5 Key Dos & Don’ts + Examples
  • Top 10 Assignment Editing Services of 2024
  • Top 10 Online Dissertation Editing Services of 2024
  • How to Write a Dissertation | 5 Tips from Academic Editors

Frequently Asked Questions

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What’s Included: Conclusion Template

This template covers all the core components required in the conclusion chapter of a typical dissertation, thesis or research project:

  • The opening/overview section
  • Summary of key findings
  • Limitations
  • Recommendations for future research
  • Contribution
  • Concluding summary

The purpose of each section is explained in plain language, followed by an overview of the key elements that you need to cover. The template also includes practical examples to help you understand exactly what’s required, along with links to additional free resources (articles, videos, etc.) to help you along your research journey.

The cleanly formatted Google Doc can be downloaded as a fully editable MS Word Document (DOCX format), so you can use it as-is or convert it to LaTeX.

PS – if you’d like a high-level template for the entire thesis, you can we’ve got that too .

Dissertation & Thesis Conclusion FAQ

What format is the template (doc, pdf, ppt, etc.).

The conclusion chapter template is provided as a Google Doc. You can download it in MS Word format or make a copy to your Google Drive. You’re also welcome to convert it to whatever format works best for you, such as LaTeX or PDF.

Is this template for an undergrad, Master or PhD-level thesis?

This template can be used for a dissertation, thesis or research project at any level of study. Doctoral-level projects typically require a lengthier, more comprehensive conclusion, but the structure will typically remain the same. Again, be sure to check your university’s requirements and norms in terms of document structure.

What types of dissertations/theses can this be used for?

The conclusion chapter template follows the standard format for academic research projects, which means it will be suitable for the majority of dissertations, theses and research projects (especially those within the sciences).

Keep in mind that the exact requirements for the conclusion chapter/section will vary between universities and degree programs. For example, your university may require that the discussion chapter and conclusion chapter are merged into one (this is common for shorter projects). So, be sure to double-check your university’s requirements before you finalize your structure.

How long should the conclusion chapter be?

This can vary a fair deal, depending on the level of study (undergrad, Master or Doctoral), the field of research, as well as your university’s specific requirements. Therefore, it’s best to check with your university or review past dissertations from your program to get an accurate estimate.

Can I share this template with my friends/colleagues?

Yes, you’re welcome to share this template in its original format (no editing allowed). If you want to post about it on your blog or social media, please reference this page as your source.

Do you have templates for the other chapters?

Yes, we do. We are constantly developing our collection of free resources to help students complete their dissertations and theses. You can view all of our template resources here .

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  1. How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion - Scribbr

    The conclusion is the very last part of your thesis or dissertation. It should be concise and engaging, leaving your reader with a clear understanding of your main findings, as well as the answer to your research question .

  2. How To Write A Dissertation Conclusion (Examples - Grad Coach

    Learn how to write up a high-quality conclusion chapter for your dissertation or thesis. Step-by-step instructions and free template.

  3. How to Write a Dissertation Conclusion - Example & Tips

    Dissertation conclusion is a core element of your dissertation or thesis paper which is why you will be required to follow a specific set of guidelines in order to showcase the findings of your study in a logical manner.

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    The conclusion is the last thing readers of your thesis will see, so it should be memorable. Learn how to write a truly excellent thesis conclusion in this step-by-step guide with examples.

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    The objective of the dissertation conclusion is to answer the primary question of the research, provide a summary of the research, make recommendations for possible research on the subject and list the new information that your research contributes to the field.

  6. Writing a Research Paper Conclusion | Step-by-Step Guide

    Having summed up your key arguments or findings, the conclusion ends by considering the broader implications of your research. This means expressing the key takeaways, practical or theoretical, from your paper—often in the form of a call for action or suggestions for future research.

  7. How to Write a Dissertation & Thesis Conclusion (+ Examples)

    6 min read. Tags: Academic Writing, Language, Writing Tips. Want to create a strong, impactful conclusion? Explore how to create a dissertation and thesis conclusion in 5 simple steps! To help you understand better, we’ve also included useful dissertation and thesis conclusion examples!

  8. How to write the conclusion of a thesis or dissertation ...

    1. Restate your thesis statement. Rephrase it so that slightly different from the thesis statement presented in the introduction and does not sound repetitive. 2. Reiterate the key points of your work. To do this, go back to your thesis and extract the topic sentences of each main paragraph/argument.

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