6 Examples: How To Address a Cover Letter Without a Name

By Editorial Team on December 25, 2023 — 11 minutes to read

Addressing the recipient without knowing their name might seem complicated, but there are ways to navigate this situation. Let’s take a look at a few strategies to make your cover letter feel personalized even when you don’t have a specific name to address.

Be Professional and Engaging

Using general salutations like “To Whom It May Concern” or “Dear Sir/Madam” can make your cover letter feel impersonal. Instead, opt for a more engaging opener such as “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear [Company Name] Team.” This type of greeting acknowledges the company and shows that you have researched the team you are addressing.

Focus on the Position and Company

Make sure to tailor the content of your cover letter to the job you are applying for by highlighting relevant qualifications, experience, and skills. Share specific examples of your successes that align with the responsibilities of the position. Mention the company’s values, goals, or recent successes to demonstrate how your values align with theirs. This can effectively showcase your interest and commitment to the role.

Use LinkedIn and Company Website Research

If you cannot find the hiring manager’s name in the job posting, you can turn to LinkedIn or the company website for clues. Search for professionals working in human resources or hiring roles at the company. If you find a specific contact, address your letter to that person while using their full name and title. Otherwise, continue with a professional and engaging salutation as mentioned earlier.

Here are two examples of how to start a cover letter without a name:

Dear Hiring Manager, As a passionate marketer with five years of experience, I am excited to apply for the Marketing Manager position at (…) Company. Achieving a 30% increase in leads generated through my previous campaigns, I am eager to contribute to the growth of your marketing department.
Dear ABC Inc. Team, With a strong background in project management and a proven track record of implementing cost-saving strategies, I am confident in my ability to excel as the Senior Project Manager at ABC Inc. Your company’s commitment to sustainable practices aligns with my values and I am thrilled to be considered for this opportunity.

By applying these strategies, you can create an impactful and personalized cover letter, even without knowing the recipient’s name. This attention to detail can set you apart from other applicants and leave a positive impression with your prospective employer.

How to Find the Hiring Manager’s Name

Sometimes locating the hiring manager’s name can be tricky, but there are several ways to find it. Let’s go through a few methods to help you address your cover letter without a name.

Using LinkedIn

LinkedIn is a great resource for finding the hiring manager’s name. Here’s how you can use it:

  • Visit the company’s LinkedIn page.
  • Click on the “People” tab to browse through the employees.
  • Use the search bar and enter keywords such as “recruiter,” “hiring manager,” or the department you’re applying to.
  • Check the found profiles, and try to identify the right person responsible for hiring in your desired role.

Make sure to double-check that the person is currently working in the company to avoid using outdated information.

Checking Company Website

Another way to find the hiring manager’s name is by checking the company website:

  • Locate the “About Us” or “Team” page, where you might find a list of employees along with their titles and roles.
  • Look for a person who has a recruiting or hiring-related title within the department you’re targeting with your application.
  • If you cannot find the necessary information on the website, try checking a company’s press releases or blog. Sometimes they include names of important team members.

Making a Phone Call

When all else fails, you’re left with one more option – making a phone call.

  • Call the company’s main line and politely ask the receptionist for the name of the hiring manager or the person responsible for recruitment in the department you’re interested in.
  • Be prepared to provide the job title and a job reference number (if available) to help the receptionist find the right person.

Finding the hiring manager’s name isn’t always possible. If you cannot locate it, don’t worry. Addressing your cover letter as “Dear Hiring Manager” or “To Whom It May Concern” is still better than not sending a cover letter at all.

How To Address a Cover Letter Without a Name: Sample Phrases

Starting with job title.

When you cannot find the recipient’s name, use their job title to address the cover letter. This shows that you can connect and direct your message to the relevant person. Here are some examples:

  • Dear Hiring Manager, – This is a common and universally understood phrase for addressing a cover letter without a name.
  • Dear [Job Title], – Use the specific job position that the recipient holds, for instance, Dear Marketing Director .
  • To the [Job Title] Selection Committee, – This approach can be useful when applying for a role advertised by a team or committee that will handle the hiring process, such as To the Scholarship Selection Committee .

Referring to Department

Another approach is to address the cover letter to the department that the position is within. This helps to direct your message to the appropriate team or group. Here are some examples:

  • Dear [Department] Team, – Mention the department you are applying for, such as Dear HR Team, or Dear Sales Team .
  • Greetings, [Department] Department, – Use the department name to address the letter, like Greetings, IT Department .
  • To Whom It May Concern in the [Department], – This is a formal alternative when you don’t know the recipient or department’s name, for example, To Whom It May Concern in the Finance Department .

Using these approaches will ensure that your cover letter appears professional and well-directed, even when you don’t have the exact name of the recipient. Focus on the content and the skills you bring to the position to make the best impression on the reader.

Crafting Content for Cover Letters

When you’re unsure of the recipient’s name, you might feel a little lost on how to address your cover letter. Don’t worry. You can still create an engaging and professional cover letter that gets the job done. Here are some tips and examples to help you craft the perfect content for an anonymous cover letter.

Start with a professional, yet friendly, greeting. If you don’t know the hiring manager’s name, use a general opening line such as “Dear Hiring Manager” or “To Whom It May Concern” . These greetings are widely accepted and show respect towards the person receiving the letter.

Next, dive into your strengths, skills, and achievements. Mention the qualifications that make you a strong candidate for the position. Share relevant accomplishments from your previous roles, such as leading a successful project or boosting sales. Be specific when describing your skills and use quantifiable results when possible. For example:

“During my time at Company (…), I managed a team of 10 and successfully increased sales by 25% within six months.”

Show enthusiasm for the job and demonstrate your knowledge of the company. Research the organization’s goals, values, and recent projects, then incorporate this information into your cover letter. This will help you tailor your letter to the company’s needs and show that you’d be a good fit for their culture. You could say something like:

“As a long-time admirer of your company’s commitment to sustainability, I’m excited about the opportunity to contribute to the upcoming eco-conscious product line.”

Close your cover letter with a strong call-to-action. Express your interest in further discussing your qualifications and offer your availability for an interview. Thank the hiring manager for considering your application and include your contact information. A sample closing paragraph could look like this:

“I’m eager to discuss how my expertise in digital marketing could contribute to the success of your team. Thank you for considering my application. You can reach me at (555) 555-5555 or [email protected] to schedule a conversation.”

Keep your cover letter concise and focused on your unique selling points. Even without knowing the recipient’s name, following these guidelines will allow you to create a memorable and attention-grabbing cover letter that leaves a lasting impression on potential employers.

Tips on Prefix Usage

When you’re addressing a cover letter without a specific name, it’s good to think about the appropriate prefix to use. Here are some tips to help you choose the right one:

First, consider using a general and gender-neutral prefix like Dear Hiring Manager . It will work well if you don’t know the recipient’s name or aren’t aware of their gender. This is a widely accepted way to address a cover letter without a specific name.

Dear Hiring Manager, I came across your job posting for a Graphic Designer, and I am excited to apply for the role.

If you happen to know the job title of the person who will read your cover letter, you can use it. This shows that you have put effort into researching the company and position.

Dear Marketing Director, I am writing to express my interest in the open Digital Marketing Specialist position at your company.

In some cases, you might know the name of the department that the job is in. In this case, you can address your cover letter to the entire department.

Dear Finance Team, I was thrilled to see an opening for a Financial Analyst at your company and would like to apply for the position.

When you’re unable to find any specific details or when addressing a larger company, you can opt for a broad salutation like To Whom It May Concern . Just be aware that it may come off as impersonal, so it’s best to use this as a last resort.

To Whom It May Concern, I am submitting my application for the Content Writer position posted on your careers website.

The key is to maintain a professional tone throughout your cover letter. Regardless of which prefix you choose, always customize your content to suit the specific job and company you’re applying to. By doing so, you demonstrate a genuine interest in the role and leave a positive impression on the hiring manager.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

Sending a cover letter without addressing it to a specific person can be a pitfall. It might make the recipient feel unimportant or signal that you didn’t do your research. To make your application stand out, be mindful of these common mistakes:

  • Not being specific about the role: Your cover letter should not only address the person but also the specific role you’re applying for. Tailor your letter according to the job and the company. For instance, instead of writing “I wish to apply for the marketing position”, be more specific like “I am interested in applying for the Digital Marketing Specialist role at [CompanyName].”
  • Focusing too much on yourself: Although your achievements are important, the cover letter should focus on how your skills can benefit the company. Frame your accomplishments in a way that highlights the value you can bring to the organization.
  • Being overly formal or stiff: While it’s important to maintain a professional tone, being too formal might come across as insincere or impersonal. Use a friendly tone and avoid jargon or buzzwords to keep your cover letter genuine and relatable.
  • Spelling errors and typos: Even the smallest of typos can create a negative impression. Double-check your cover letter to make sure there are no mistakes. Keep an eye out for incorrect spellings, especially when addressing the recipient.

The goal of your cover letter is to make a personal connection and showcase how you are a great fit for the company. Taking the time to address your letter properly, proofread for errors, and customize your content demonstrates your attention to detail and commitment to the position.

Frequently Asked Questions

How can i properly address a cover letter when the recipient’s name is unknown.

If you don’t know the recipient’s name, consider using a general salutation instead. For example, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Recruitment Team” acknowledges the recipient without using a specific name. You can also research the company’s website or LinkedIn to try to find the appropriate contact person.

What alternatives are there to ‘To Whom It May Concern’?

There are several alternatives to ‘To Whom It May Concern’ that can help make your cover letter stand out:

  • Dear Hiring Manager
  • Dear [Company] Team
  • Dear [Department or Job Title] Hiring Team
  • Dear [Company] Recruitment Team

How do I determine the appropriate salutation for my cover letter?

To determine the right salutation for your cover letter, do a bit of research on the company or organization you’re targeting. This may help you uncover the specific department or hiring manager’s name. If not, use one of the general salutations mentioned earlier to address your cover letter in a more personalized manner.

What are examples of cover letter openings without using names?

Here are some examples of cover letter openings without using specific names:

  • “Dear Hiring Manager, I am excited to submit my application for the [Job Title] position at [Company].”
  • “Dear [Department or Job Title] Hiring Team, As a passionate professional with experience in [Industry], I am eager to contribute to [Company] as a [Job Title].”
  • “Dear [Company] Team, I recently came across the [Job Title] opening at [Company], and I am confident that my skills and experience make me a strong candidate.”

How can I avoid common mistakes when addressing cover letters without names?

To avoid mistakes when addressing cover letters without names, follow these tips:

  • Do thorough research on the company and the job posting
  • Be concise and professional in your language
  • Use an appropriate general salutation if you can’t find a specific name
  • Double-check for spelling and grammatical errors before sending the cover letter
  • Avoid using outdated or overused phrases, such as ‘To Whom It May Concern’ or ‘Dear Sir/Madam’

By following these guidelines, you can create a strong and effective cover letter that stands out to hiring managers, even if you don’t have a specific name to address.

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How to write a great cover letter in 2024: tips and structure


A cover letter is a personalized letter that introduces you to a potential employer, highlights your qualifications, and explains why you're a strong fit for a specific job.

Hate or love them, these brief documents allow job seekers to make an impression and stand out from the pile of other applications. Penning a thoughtful cover letter shows the hiring team you care about earning the position.

Here’s everything you need to know about how to write a cover letter — and a great one, at that.

What is a cover letter and why does it matter?

A professional cover letter is a one-page document you submit alongside your CV or resume as part of a job application. Typically, they’re about half a page or around 150–300 words.

An effective cover letter doesn’t just rehash your CV; it’s your chance to highlight your proudest moments, explain why you want the job, and state plainly what you bring to the table.

Show the reviewer you’re likable, talented, and will add to the company’s culture . You can refer to previous jobs and other information from your CV, but only if it helps tell a story about you and your career choices .

What 3 things should you include in a cover letter?

A well-crafted cover letter can help you stand out to potential employers. To make your cover letter shine, here are three key elements to include:

1. Personalization

Address the hiring manager or recruiter by name whenever possible. If the job posting doesn't include a name, research to find out who will be reviewing applications. Personalizing your cover letter shows that you've taken the time to tailor your application to the specific company and role.

2. Highlight relevant achievements and skills

Emphasize your most relevant skills , experiences, and accomplishments that directly relate to the job you're applying for. Provide specific examples of how your skills have benefited previous employers and how they can contribute to the prospective employer's success. Use quantifiable achievements , such as improved efficiency, cost savings, or project success, to demonstrate your impact.

3. Show enthusiasm and fit

Express your enthusiasm for the company and the position you're applying for. Explain why you are interested in this role and believe you are a good fit for the organization. Mention how your values, goals, and skills align with the company's mission and culture. Demonstrating that you've done your research can make a significant impression.

What do hiring managers look for in a cover letter?

Employers look for several key elements in a cover letter. These include:

Employers want to see that your cover letter is specifically tailored to the position you are applying for. It should demonstrate how your skills, experiences, and qualifications align with the job requirements.

Clear and concise writing

A well-written cover letter is concise, easy to read, and error-free. Employers appreciate clear and effective communication skills , so make sure your cover letter showcases your ability to express yourself effectively.

Demonstrated knowledge of the company

Employers want to see that you are genuinely interested in their organization. Mention specific details about the company, such as recent achievements or projects, to show that you are enthusiastic about joining their team.

Achievements and accomplishments

Highlight your relevant achievements and accomplishments that demonstrate your qualifications for the position. Use specific examples to showcase your skills and show how they can benefit the employer.

Enthusiasm and motivation

Employers want to hire candidates who are excited about the opportunity and motivated to contribute to the company's success. Express your enthusiasm and passion for the role and explain why you are interested in working for the company.


A cover letter should be professional in tone and presentation. Use formal language, address the hiring manager appropriately, and follow standard business letter formatting.


How do you structure a cover letter?

A well-structured cover letter follows a specific format that makes it easy for the reader to understand your qualifications and enthusiasm for the position. Here's a typical structure for a cover letter:

Contact information

Include your name, address, phone number, and email address at the top of the letter. Place your contact information at the beginning so that it's easy for the employer to reach you.

Employer's contact information

Opening paragraph, middle paragraph(s), closing paragraph, complimentary close, additional contact information.

Repeat your contact information (name, phone number, and email) at the end of the letter, just in case the employer needs it for quick reference.

Remember to keep your cover letter concise and focused. It should typically be no more than one page in length. Proofread your letter carefully to ensure it is free from spelling and grammatical errors. Tailor each cover letter to the specific job application to make it as relevant and impactful as possible.

How to write a good cover letter (with examples)

The best letters are unique, tailored to the job description, and written in your voice — but that doesn’t mean you can’t use a job cover letter template.

Great cover letters contain the same basic elements and flow a certain way. Take a look at this cover letter structure for ref erence while you construct your own.

1. Add a header and contact information

While reading your cover letter, the recruiter shouldn’t have to look far to find who wrote it. Your document should include a basic heading with the following information:

  • Pronouns (optional)
  • Location (optional)
  • Email address
  • Phone number (optional)
  • Relevant links, such as your LinkedIn profile , portfolio, or personal website (optional)

You can pull this information directly from your CV. Put it together, and it will look something like this:

Christopher Pike

San Francisco, California

[email protected]

Alternatively, if the posting asks you to submit your cover letter in the body of an email, you can include this information in your signature. For example:

Warm regards,

Catherine Janeway

Bloomington, Indiana

[email protected]

(555) 999 - 2222


2. Include a personal greeting

Always begin your cover letter by addressing the hiring manager — preferably by name. You can use the person’s first and last name. Make sure to include a relevant title, like Dr., Mr., or Ms. For example, “Dear Mr. John Doe.”

Avoid generic openings like “To whom it may concern,” “Dear sir or madam,” or “Dear hiring manager.” These introductions sound impersonal — like you’re copy-pasting cover letters — and can work against you in the hiring process.

Be careful, though. When using someone’s name, you don’t want to use the wrong title or accidentally misgender someone. If in doubt, using only their name is enough. You could also opt for a gender-neutral title, like Mx.

Make sure you’re addressing the right person in your letter — ideally, the person who’s making the final hiring decision. This isn’t always specified in the job posting, so you may have to do some research to learn the name of the hiring manager.

3. Draw them in with an opening story

The opening paragraph of your cover letter should hook the reader. You want it to be memorable, conversational, and extremely relevant to the job you’re pursuing. 

There’s no need for a personal introduction — you’ve already included your name in the heading. But you should make reference to the job you’re applying for. A simple “Thank you for considering my application for the role of [job title] at [company],” will suffice.

Then you can get into the “Why” of your job application. Drive home what makes this specific job and this company so appealing to you. Perhaps you’re a fan of their products, you’re passionate about their mission, or you love their brand voice. Whatever the case, this section is where you share your enthusiasm for the role.

Here’s an example opening paragraph. In this scenario, you’re applying for a digital marketing role at a bicycle company:

“Dear Mr. John Doe,

Thank you for considering my application for the role of Marketing Coordinator at Bits n’ Bikes.

My parents bought my first bike at one of your stores. I’ll never forget the freedom I felt when I learned to ride it. My father removed my training wheels, and my mom sent me barrelling down the street. You provide joy to families across the country — and I want to be part of that.”

4. Emphasize why you’re best for the job

Your next paragraphs should be focused on the role you’re applying to. Highlight your skill set and why you’re a good fit for the needs and expectations associated with the position. Hiring managers want to know what you’ll bring to the job, not just any role.

Start by studying the job description for hints. What problem are they trying to solve with this hire? What skills and qualifications do they mention first or more than once? These are indicators of what’s important to the hiring manager.

Search for details that match your experience and interests. For example, if you’re excited about a fast-paced job in public relations, you might look for these elements in a posting:

  • They want someone who can write social media posts and blog content on tight deadlines
  • They value collaboration and input from every team member
  • They need a planner who can come up with strong PR strategies

Highlight how you fulfill these requirements:

“I’ve always been a strong writer. From blog posts to social media, my content pulls in readers and drives traffic to product pages. For example, when I worked at Bits n’ Bikes, I developed a strategic blog series about bike maintenance that increased our sales of spare parts and tools by 50% — we could see it in our web metrics.

Thanks to the input of all of our team members, including our bike mechanics, my content delivered results.”

5. End with a strong closing paragraph and sign off gracefully

Your closing paragraph is your final chance to hammer home your enthusiasm about the role and your unique ability to fill it. Reiterate the main points you explained in the body paragraphs and remind the reader of what you bring to the table.

You can also use the end of your letter to relay other important details, like whether you’re willing to relocate for the job.

When choosing a sign-off, opt for a phrase that sounds professional and genuine. Reliable options include “Sincerely” and “Kind regards.”

Here’s a strong closing statement for you to consider:

“I believe my enthusiasm, skills, and work experience as a PR professional will serve Bits n’ Bikes very well. I would love to meet to further discuss my value-add as your next Director of Public Relations. Thank you for your consideration. I hope we speak soon.


Tips to write a great cover letter that compliments your resume

When writing your own letter, try not to copy the example excerpts word-for-word. Instead, use this cover letter structure as a baseline to organize your ideas. Then, as you’re writing, use these extra cover letter tips to add your personal touch:

  • Keep your cover letter different from your resume : Your cover letter should not duplicate the information on your resume. Instead, it should provide context and explanations for key points in your resume, emphasizing how your qualifications match the specific job you're applying for.
  • Customize your cover letter . Tailor your cover letter for each job application. Address the specific needs of the company and the job posting, demonstrating that you've done your homework and understand their requirements.
  • Show enthusiasm and fit . Express your enthusiasm for the company and position in the cover letter. Explain why you are interested in working for this company and how your values, goals, and skills align with their mission and culture.
  • Use keywords . Incorporate keywords from the job description and industry terms in your cover letter. This can help your application pass through applicant tracking systems (ATS) and demonstrate that you're well-versed in the field.
  • Keep it concise . Your cover letter should be succinct and to the point, typically no more than one page. Focus on the most compelling qualifications and experiences that directly support your application.
  • Be professional . Maintain a professional tone and structure in your cover letter. Proofread it carefully to ensure there are no errors.
  • Address any gaps or concerns . If there are gaps or concerns in your resume, such as employment gaps or a change in career direction, briefly address them in your cover letter. Explain any relevant circumstances and how they have shaped your qualifications and determination.
  • Provide a call to action . Conclude your cover letter with a call to action, inviting the employer to contact you for further discussion. Mention that you've attached your resume for their reference.
  • Follow the correct format . Use a standard cover letter format like the one above, including your contact information, a formal salutation, introductory and closing paragraphs, and your signature. Ensure that it complements your resume without redundancy.
  • Pick the right voice and tone . Try to write like yourself, but adapt to the tone and voice of the company. Look at the job listing, company website, and social media posts. Do they sound fun and quirky, stoic and professional, or somewhere in-between? This guides your writing style.
  • Tell your story . You’re an individual with unique expertise, motivators, and years of experience. Tie the pieces together with a great story. Introduce how you arrived at this point in your career, where you hope to go , and how this prospective company fits in your journey. You can also explain any career changes in your resume.
  • Show, don’t tell . Anyone can say they’re a problem solver. Why should a recruiter take their word for it if they don’t back it up with examples? Instead of naming your skills, show them in action. Describe situations where you rose to the task, and quantify your success when you can.
  • Be honest . Avoid highlighting skills you don’t have. This will backfire if they ask you about them in an interview. Instead, shift focus to the ways in which you stand out.
  • Avoid clichés and bullet points . These are signs of lazy writing. Do your best to be original from the first paragraph to the final one. This highlights your individuality and demonstrates the care you put into the letter.
  • Proofread . Always spellcheck your cover letter. Look for typos, grammatical errors, and proper flow. We suggest reading it out loud. If it sounds natural rolling off the tongue, it will read naturally as well.


Common cover letter writing FAQs

How long should a cover letter be.

A cover letter should generally be concise and to the point. It is recommended to keep it to one page or less, focusing on the most relevant information that highlights your qualifications and fits the job requirements.

Should I include personal information in a cover letter?

While it's important to introduce yourself and provide your contact information, avoid including personal details such as your age, marital status, or unrelated hobbies. Instead, focus on presenting your professional qualifications and aligning them with the job requirements.

Can I use the same cover letter for multiple job applications?

While it may be tempting to reuse a cover letter, it is best to tailor each cover letter to the specific job you are applying for. This allows you to highlight why you are a good fit for that particular role and show genuine interest in the company.

Do I need to address my cover letter to a specific person?

Whenever possible, it is advisable to address your cover letter to a specific person, such as the hiring manager or recruiter. If the job posting does not provide this information, try to research and find the appropriate contact. If all else fails, you can use a generic salutation such as "Dear Hiring Manager."

Should I include references in my cover letter?

It is generally not necessary to include references in your cover letter. Save this information for when the employer explicitly requests it. Instead, focus on showcasing your qualifications and achievements that make you a strong candidate for the position.

It’s time to start writing your stand-out cover letter

The hardest part of writing is getting started. 

Hopefully, our tips gave you some jumping-off points and confidence . But if you’re really stuck, looking at cover letter examples and resume templates will help you decide where to get started. 

There are numerous sample cover letters available online. Just remember that you’re a unique, well-rounded person, and your cover letter should reflect that. Using our structure, you can tell your story while highlighting your passion for the role. 

Doing your research, including strong examples of your skills, and being courteous is how to write a strong cover letter. Take a breath , flex your fingers, and get typing. Before you know it, your job search will lead to a job interview.

If you want more personalized guidance, a specialized career coach can help review, edit, and guide you through creating a great cover letter that sticks.

Ace your job search

Explore effective job search techniques, interview strategies, and ways to overcome job-related challenges. Our coaches specialize in helping you land your dream job.

Elizabeth Perry, ACC

Elizabeth Perry is a Coach Community Manager at BetterUp. She uses strategic engagement strategies to cultivate a learning community across a global network of Coaches through in-person and virtual experiences, technology-enabled platforms, and strategic coaching industry partnerships. With over 3 years of coaching experience and a certification in transformative leadership and life coaching from Sofia University, Elizabeth leverages transpersonal psychology expertise to help coaches and clients gain awareness of their behavioral and thought patterns, discover their purpose and passions, and elevate their potential. She is a lifelong student of psychology, personal growth, and human potential as well as an ICF-certified ACC transpersonal life and leadership Coach.

3 cover letter examples to help you catch a hiring manager’s attention

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Blog Cover Letter Help How to Address a Cover Letter

How to Address a Cover Letter (and Who to Address)

Addressing your cover letter directly to the hiring manager is the best way to start it. No matter how you format your cover letter, begin it with a personalized greeting so the hiring manager sees you’ve researched the company.

cover letter name of employer

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Knowing how to address a cover letter properly is the first step toward starting your cover letter .

cover letter name of employer

Our free-to-use cover letter builder can make you a cover letter in as little as 5 minutes. Just pick the template you want, and our software will format everything for you.

Who to address a cover letter to

You should address a cover letter to the hiring manager of the job you’re applying for, or the HR manager of the company. A basic cover letter salutation (or greeting) uses the hiring manager’s first and last name and includes a “Mr.”, “Ms.”, or other relevant professional title before their name.

But you’ll often find yourself in situations where there’s no personal contact information in the job post or if you’re cold emailing for a job, you’re unsure of who to contact. Either way, you’ll need to address your letter the right way, and addressing the hiring manager is the safest way to do so.

cover letter name of employer

How to write a cover letter

Dread writing cover letters? Read our guide to learn how to write a great cover letter that convinces hiring managers you’re the ideal person for the job.

How to find out who to address a cover letter to

In many cases, the hiring manager’s name will be mentioned in the job description. If you can’t find the hiring manager’s name in the job description, make the effort to find their name elsewhere. It’s worth the extra work, so use the following sources to help you find the hiring manager’s name:

  • The company website : See if you can locate the hiring manager on the “About Us” or “Company Directory” page of the company’s website.
  • LinkedIn : Browse the company’s LinkedIn page and use filters such as position title, location, and personal names to find out who heads the hiring team.
  • Google search : A targeted Google search can help you uncover the name of the hiring manager. Simply insert the company website and relevant title into Google in the following format: “position title”
  • Contact the company : If you’re still unable to find the hiring manager’s name, call or email the company and ask for the contact person’s name (and direct email address if you don’t have it already). Explain that you’re applying for a position and you’d like to address your cover letter to someone responsible for filling that position.

Addressing your cover letter to the hiring manager directly allows you to quickly establish a personal connection and shows you’ve done your research. A cover letter addressed to the right person and tailored to the company you’re applying for is more likely to get noticed than a generic cover letter sent to multiple companies.

This is why it’s so crucial to address a cover letter the right way.

If you decide to use email, you can approach someone within the same department you’re interested in and ask for the hiring manager’s contact information.

How to address a cover letter without a name

an image of cover letter address examples when the recipient is unknown

If you’ve exhausted all your options and still can’t find the hiring manager’s name, or you’re not positive it’s the right name and don’t want to risk addressing the wrong person, it’s better to be on the safe side.

So don’t worry, there are plenty of options you can try if the hiring manager’s name is unknown. Here are the most common ways to address a cover letter without a name :

  • To Whom It May Concern
  • Dear Human Resources Director
  • Dear Hiring Manager
  • Dear Recruitment Manager

Additionally, if you want to add a personal touch, address your cover letter to your prospective department or manager. For example, “Dear Customer Service Department,”.

If you download a cover letter sample online, make sure you personalize the greeting. Many samples use “ To Whom It May Concern ” or “ Dear Sir or Madam ” which is considered old-fashioned and generic.  While it’s unlikely that any employer will hold your cover letter salutation against you, being specific in your cover letter address is still the best policy.

How to address a cover letter with a name

an image of cover letter address examples when the recipient is known

Even when you have the hiring manager’s name, there are still a few different ways to address your cover letter.

Use the right salutation

First thing’s first: you need to use the proper salutation. Usually, “Dear” followed by the hiring manager’s name is perfect because it’s traditional and professional.

However, “Hello” is also acceptable if you’re applying to a job with a casual office culture or you know the hiring manager personally.

Not including a salutation and just starting your cover letter with the hiring manager’s first and last name is also acceptable.

Use their academic, professional, or gendered title

In some cases, it might be unclear what title to use when addressing the hiring manager.

If the hiring manager has a gender-neutral name, it’s best not to assume their gender and risk making a mistake. In this situation, simply avoid gender-specific titles such as “Mr.” and “Ms.” in your greeting.

Instead, do either of the following to make your cover letter salutation gender-neutral:

  • Write out their first and last names in full (e.g. Jordan Reeves)
  • Use the gender-neutral pronoun “ Mx. “, in the case that the hiring manager explicitly wants to be addressed this way

An easy way to confirm the gender of the hiring manager is by doing a quick search for their name on LinkedIn . In some cases, hiring managers list their gender pronouns at the top of their profile to clarify.

When you address a cover letter to a hiring manager with a professional or academic title (like Doctor or Professor), include their title in your salutation. You can write out the full title or use an abbreviation. For example, “Reverend” and “Rev.” are both fine.

Here are some examples of a few different ways to address your cover letter:

  • Dear Sam Jones,
  • Dear Mx. Lopez,
  • Dear Ms. Patel,
  • Dear Prof. Tsai,

If you’re addressing your cover letter with “Dear” you should always use the hiring manager’s last name.

The only time it’s acceptable to address the hiring manager with only their first name (for example, “Dear Mollie,”) is if you’re writing a cover letter for an internal position or promotion in the same company, and you already know the hiring manager.

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Dominique Vatin

Career Coach and Resume Expert (CPRW)

Dominique Vatin is a Staff Writer and Career Advisor at Resume Genius. A Certified Professional Resume Writer (CPRW), Dominique enjoys leveraging her knowledge of the career space to provide invaluable guidance for job seekers looking for more fulfilling work opportunities. With an M.A. from Yonsei University GSIS (Seoul, South Korea), Dominique’s insights have been quoted across the internet by authority websites like Yahoo! Finance and We Work Remotely. Interested in reaching out for a collaboration or a media-related query? Contact her via LinkedIn.

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How to address a cover letter without a name?

According to a study, every corporate job opening gets roughly 250 resumes , out of which only 3-4 applicants land an interview.

That means if your cover letter feels generic and lacks personal touch, it may end up in the trash.

However, what if there is a circumstance for addressing a cover letter with no name?

Read on to get an insight into the following FAQs:

  • How do you write a cover letter if you don't know the hiring manager?
  • How to format the cover letter address correctly?
  • Who to write a cover letter to without a contact?
  • Which method of delivering a cover letter is not appropriate?
  • What are the practical ways to find the hiring manager’s name?
  • Additional tips to write a cover letter without name

Whom to Address a Cover Letter To?

Who do you address a cover letter to when there is no name?

To understand how to address a cover letter, you need to know to whom to address it.

A cover letter should be addressed in the following ways:

  • If the hiring manager’s name is given in the job description, you should always address the cover letter to them.
  • If the hiring manager’s email address is not there in the job description, you can address the cover letter to the department manager.

There is no point in sending the cover letter to the CEO or founders because they are not the ones who usually handle the recruitment process.

Also Read: How to address a cover letter?

How to Address a Cover Letter Without a Name?

A cover letter for a job is not similar to a letter to a friend.

The purpose of a cover is to impress the hiring manager with your professional expertise to score an interview.

But addressing cover letters with no name may get rejected by the recruiters.

We understand how important it is to know how to write a cover letter without a name as per these statistics.

Also Read: How to write a cover letter?

Here are some steps on how to address a cover letter without a name:

1. Address the Cover Letter with “Dear Hiring Manager”

It is the most common way to address a hiring manager with no name and hiring managers prefer this salutation over no salutation at all.

This salutation allows the hiring manager to quickly focus on the main body of the cover letter, instead of rejecting the cover letter right away.

However, the best way to address a cover letter is by personalizing it.

2. Address the Cover Letter to the Team

When in doubt, you can address the whole team so that anyone from the team can receive your cover letter and respond accordingly.

It can be the hiring manager, assistant, or anyone from the department who may interview you during the job application process.

You can phrase it as:

  • Dear Recruiting Team
  • Dear Project Manager Hiring Team
Also Read: What can a cover letter explain that a résumé cannot?

3. Maintain Professional Approach

Maintain a professional approach and avoid informal phrases or words such as "Hello!", "Good Evening/Morning", or "Hi!"

Keep it simple and professional by using the term, "Dear" followed by the designation.

For Example:

  • Dear Hiring Head
  • Dear Recruitment Supervisor

4. Do Not Assume Gender or Marital Status

You often know the hiring manager’s name but do not know their gender or marital status.

Assuming someone's gender may seem disrespectful and unprofessional hence you should avoid making such mistakes by keeping it gender-neutral. Avoid the term "Sir" or "Madam" and simply address the recipient as "Dear (Profile)".

The best way to find the hiring manager’s gender is by doing a quick LinkedIn search.

The LinkedIn profile may contain a profile picture wherein you can determine the hiring manager’s gender.

If the hiring manager’s gender is Male, address the hiring manager with “Mr.”.

  • “Mr. Xavier,”

If the hiring manager is female, it can be confusing.

As you don’t know the marital status, avoid using Miss. or Mrs. to address the hiring manager. Instead, use a generic “Ms..”

  • Dear Ms. Moore
  • Dear Ms. Kyle
  • Dear Mrs. Lane
  • Dear Miss Maximoff
Also Read: How to reach out to recruiters on LinkedIn?

5. Include Job Profile and Professional Titles

Are you asking yourself continuously, “How to address a cover letter without a contact name?”

Here is the answer for you.

Instead of using only “ Dear Hiring Manager ,” include the department name or the title of the person who will be reading the cover letter to make it more specific.

  • Dear Marketing Department,
  • Dear Head of the Sales Department,
  • Dear VP of Marketing

By personalizing the addresses in this way, you can grab the hiring manager’s attention to read your resume.

This shows that you are not throwing a rock blindly. You have done your research and have some idea about the company.

Don’t forget to include the hiring manager’s academic title or professional title in the cover letter address.

These types of hyper-personalization can grab the hiring manager’s attention even more and entice them to read your cover letter.

How to Write the Academic Title in the Cover Letter Address?

You can write the academic title in full form.

  • Dear Doctor Green,
  • Dear Professor Geller,

Alternatively, you can use the abbreviation of the titles as well.

  • Dear Dr. Murphy,
  • Dear Prof. Goodwin,
  • Dear Sgt. Moore,
  • Dear Principle Alan,

Where to Place the Cover Letter Address?

Not just the proper format, but the placement of the cover letter address also plays an important role.

  • The cover letter heading will go at the top.
  • Write the date below the heading.
  • Leave one line space and write the hiring manager’s name.
  • Write the address of the company.
  • Leave one space and then write the position you are applying for.
  • Leave one space and then write the salutation.

Cover letter without name

Best Way to Address a Cover Letter with No Name or Email

Writing an email cover letter address is fundamentally similar but with some tweaks.

If you are sending a digital cover letter, you need to start with a professional subject line.

John Doe: Application for Video Editor Position, Reff: Anthony Moore

Then add your cover letter salutation based on the same rule.

Add a line space and then start your cover letter by adding the necessary information that gives an insight into your professional experience and skills.

Subject Line: John Doe: Application for Project Manager Position, Reff: Charles Moore

Dear Hiring Manager,

I am a 5+ years experienced project management professional…

Appropriate Method of Delivering a Cover Letter

  • Dear Hiring Manager
  • Dear Hiring Committee
  • Dear (department name) Hiring Committee
  • Dear Hiring Team
  • To the (department name) Hiring Manager
  • Dear Team (For smaller companies)
  • To the Recruiting Team
Also Read: What are the benefits of using a cover letter builder?

Inappropriate Method of Delivering a Cover Letter

  • Dear Sir or Madam — Ancient salutation does not work anymore
  • To Whom It May Concern — It is not personalized
  • Hello, Hi, or Greetings — Informal salutation
  • Happy Sunday! — Casual salutation
  • Good Morning — Not practical as you have no idea when they will read the letter
Also Read: How to draft a professional message to the hiring manager?

How to Find the Hiring Manager's Name?

How do you write a cover letter if you don't know the name?

Well, you can simply address your cover letter as, "Dear Hiring Manager". But if you feel the need to add the name of the hiring manager then there are ways to do so.

Finding the hiring manager’s name is the best way to address a cover letter.

So, before calling it quits, let us look at some ways to find the hiring manager’s name.

Read the Job Description Thoroughly

Always read the job description carefully!

Usually, the hiring manager’s name or the title of the reporting manager is given in the job description or under the job description.

For instance, “ The digital marketer will report to the Marketing Manager. ”

You can use the title to then find their name on the company website or LinkedIn.

Sometimes the job description includes the hiring manager’s email address.

For Example: “ Send your cover letter and resume to johndoe@hiration[dot]com" .

You can find the hiring manager’s name in the email address.

Visit the Profile of the Job Publisher

Sites like LinkedIn or AngelList have this unique feature to show you the name of the one who posts the job.

You can go to their profile to see if they are the hiring manager and include their name in the cover letter.

Call the Company Front Desk

Calling the company is the easiest way to find the hiring manager's name. But, job candidates reserve it as the last option.

  • Call the company desk
  • Tell them that you are applying for a “vacant position” in their company and would like to know the hiring manager’s name.

Here’s an example of the script:

“ Hi, my name is Alex, and I’m currently applying for the video editor position in your company. Would it be possible for you to provide me the name and email id of the hiring manager so that I can address the cover letter properly?”

Do a Quick LinkedIn Search

According to a study, 87% of recruiters use LinkedIn regularly . That means, if you search for the hiring manager of a certain company on LinkedIn, there is a high chance for you to find their name.

Many job descriptions specifically tell the reporting manager’s title in the job description. Then you need to address the cover letter to the reporting manager.

The process of finding the reporting manager’s name is similar.

  • Go to LinkedIn
  • Search the job title and company name
  • In the search result, you can find the profile of the designated person
  • Sometimes, there might be more than one similar position for a big company so you need to narrow your search by location to find the reporting manager
Also Read : How to Make the Best Use of LinkedIn Search Feature?

Network with People

LinkedIn is the best way to find and connect with people who have connections in the company you are applying for. If you can create a good rapport with these professionals, you can ask for a reference.

It is an easy but time-consuming process.

  • Search the company name and see the professionals active on LinkedIn
  • Start engaging with their content and leave thoughtful comments
  • Send them a personalized connection invite after engaging with their content for a couple of days
  • Do not ask for a reference abruptly; instead, start building a rapport with them by sharing helpful industry information, blog, article links, videos, etc.
  • If possible, move the connection offline and meet in person
  • After you develop a good rapport with the professionals, you can ask for a reference or introduce yourself to the hiring manager
Also Read : How to Connect with People on LinkedIn?

Tips for Addressing a Cover Letter with No Name

Always use a formal address in the cover letter.

Whether you know the hiring manager’s name or not, always keep the address formal in the cover letter. Even if the company has an informal culture, do not use any casual address unless you are a part of the organization.

  • Dear Ms. Lane,
  • Dear Prof. Luther,
  • Dear Ms. Ann,
  • Hello Maya,
  • Greetings Max,

Avoid Using “To Whom It May Concern”

This salutation is too generic and does not address anyone at all; however, according to a survey, 17% of hiring managers prefer this salutation over others .

But the problem is 83% of hiring managers don’t prefer it.

So we suggest that you avoid it altogether.

Avoid Addressing the Cover Letter to the Recruiters

A recruiter’s job is to sort the resumes based on skills and experience and pass them to the hiring managers. They don’t generally read the cover letter.

So, it’s a waste of opportunity if you address the cover letter to the recruiter.

Instead, always address the cover letter to the hiring manager.

Ensure That You Are Addressing the Cover Letter to the Right Person

Online information is not updated regularly. Often, the concerned persons leave the job, but their email id is still there on the website.

So, who to address cover letter to if unknown? Or you are unsure? It is best to acresully research the hiring manager’s name and crosscheck if you have any doubts by calling the company directly.

Do Not Mess up the Hiring Manager’s Name

There is a saying that “The first impression is the last impression.”

Try to make an excellent first impression by writing the hiring manager’s name using the correct spelling.

Don’t Stress Too Much

If you have the relevant skills and experience for a job, addressing a cover letter to the wrong person might not be a big deal. So, if you can’t find the hiring manager’s name and wondering how to address a cover letter without a name, just write “Dear Hiring Manager.”

Make Sure the Cover Letter is Short and Easy to Read

You should not make the cover letter more than 400-500 words long. It will make it difficult to read.

A short and crisp cover letter will intrigue the hiring managers as compared to a long one.

Also Read: How long should a cover letter be?

Cover Letter Without Name Sample

Hiration cover letter builder.

Create a polished, professional cover letter in minutes with an AI-powered tool that helps you create a personalized cover letter based on the job description.

It comes with the following features:

  • Option to save unlimited cover letters
  • Intuitive next text suggestion
  • 15+ cover letter designs
  • Full rich-text editor
  • Unlimited PDF downloads
  • 30+ pre-filled cover letter templates
  • 1-click design change
  • A sharable link
  • LIVE cover letter editor

FAQs on "How to Address a Cover Letter Without Name?"

With that, we have answered all of your questions on “how to address a cover letter without a name?”.

Addressing a cover letter to an unknown person should not be difficult if you can keep some points in mind regrading how to go about in this situation. Here are a few FAQs that will help you gain a quick recap:

Q. How to address a cover letter to an unknown person?

A. In cases where you are wondering how to address a cover letter without name, you can opt for "Dear Hiring Manager," or "Dear {Company Name} Recruiting Team,".

Q. Who to address cover letter to with no contact?

A. When addressing a cover letter without a specific contact, it's best to use a generic but professional greeting such as "Dear {Company Name} Recruiting Team" or "Dear Hiring Team." This shows that you have taken the time to tailor your application to the company while acknowledging that you don't have a specific contact person.

Hiration provides you with a personalized 360-degree ChatGPT-powered career service platform for all your professional needs - from building a shortlist-worthy resume and cover letter to optimizing your LinkedIn profile, preparing for interviews, and more!

For any queries or concerns, feel free to drop a mail at support{@}

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What to Name Your Cover Letter and Resume Files

It may seem trivial, but file names matter. Here, we discuss naming conventions and best practices for saving and uploading your cover letter and resume.

3 years ago   •   9 min read

You finally finished creating your cover letter and resume — and you’re excited to send it off to prospective employers.

But wait — how should you save your files? Do you send them off as word documents or as PDFs? And how should you name them? Do you include your full name? What about the date?

In this article, we’ll take a look at how to name and save cover letters and resume files. We’ll talk about naming conventions, discuss do's and don’ts, and offer other practical tips and tricks on how to upload your cover letter and resume so that your application is professional and easy to read. Let’s do this!

Naming a cover letter and resume file

Do's and don'ts for naming your resume and cover letter.

Here's what to include in your resume or cover letter file name:

  • Your full name, first and last
  • The words "resume" or "cover letter" (depending on which it is)
  • The name of the position you're applying for
  • Anything mentioned in the job ad — always follow instructions above all else

On the other hand, here's what not to include in your resume or cover letter file name:

  • Company name
  • Version number
  • Random strings of numbers of letters
  • Special characters

What to name your resume and cover letter

Here are some examples of good resume file names following the above conventions.

Resume file name examples:

JohnSmithResume.pdf JohnSmith_Resume_PositionTitle.pdf johnsmith_resume_salesmanager.pdf Resume_JohnSmith_JobID2346.pdf

Cover letter file name examples:

Jenny_Su_Cover_Letter.pdf Jenny_Su_CoverLetter_PositionTitle.pdf jennysu_accountant_coverletter.pdf UI_designer_00154_cover_letter_jenny_su.pdf

What not to name your resume and cover letter

Cover letter and resume file names like the following should be avoided:

“CompanyName_CoverLetter_v3.doc” “Resume06092021.docx” “CoverLetter_JohnSmith_CompanyName.pdf”,“John_Smith_December2019.doc”, and “John_Smith_Resume_Ver2.pdf”

How to name your resume and cover letter

Step-by-step guide to name your resume.

  • In either Word or Google Docs, click File -> Save As / Export to PDF
  • Type your full name.
  • Add the word 'Resume'.
  • Make sure you keep the '.pdf' file extension.
  • Remove all spaces, and replace them with underscores (e.g. Jane_Brooke) or sentence case (e.g. JaneBrook) if necessary.
  • Remove version numbers, dates or other irrelevant words.
  • Remove special characters.
  • Save your resume.

Step-by-step guide to name your cover letter

  • Add the word 'CoverLetter'.
  • Remove special characters, version numbers, dates or other irrelevant words that make your filename lengths unnecessarily long.
  • Save your cover letter.

How to save your cover letter and resume

Below is a step-by-step guide on how to save your cover letter and resume, in several file formats .

Microsoft Word

To save your cover letter or resume as a Word document, follow these steps:

  • Open up your cover letter or resume in Word
  • Under “File”, hit “Save As…”
  • A dialogue box will appear. Next to “Save As:” at the top, name your file.
  • Next to “File Format:”, located near the bottom of the screen, check to see that your file is saved as a Word document (this should be selected by default).
  • Once you have confirmed this, hit “Save”.

The dialogue box for saving your Word Document

Google Docs

Google Docs is convenient because it auto-saves your files. However, you’ll need to do a bit of work in order to share it with your recruiter or hiring manager. Here’s how:

  • Open your Google Doc. The filename is displayed in the top left-hand corner of the screen, next to the blue docs icon. Double click to edit.
  • Go to “File”, then click “Share”.
  • A dialogue box will appear. You can either:
  • Share with people directly, under “Share with people and groups”, if you know their email
  • Under “Get link”, hit “Copy link” for a sharing link, which you can send via your application

A screenshot of the dialogue box that appears when you click “Share” in Google Docs

Export as a PDF in Word

Here’s how to save your Word Document as a PDF:

  • Open up your cover letter or resume in Word.
  • Go to “File”, and hit “Save As…”
  • A dialogue box will appear. Name your cover letter or resume file in the field next to “Save As:” at the top.
  • Click on the field next to “File Format:”, located near the bottom of the screen, and choose “PDF”.
  • Once that has been selected, click “Export”.

Select “PDF” next to “File Format:” in the dialogue box that appears when you hit “Save As…”

Once you’ve chosen your resume file format and appropriate names for your cover letter and resume files, upload to the tool below — it’s a good way to check if your resume is readable by Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). It’ll also scan your resume and let you know if it checks all the boxes from a hiring manager’s perspective.

Other considerations

Here are some of the whys (and why nots) of resume file naming conventions.

Avoid generic resume file names

Avoid cover letters and resume files that aren’t clearly named — like those that are titled with a long string of numbers, or others that are just called “CoverLetter” or “Resume” with no other identifying information.

Poorly-named cover letters and resume files make it harder to tell at a glance what a file contains and who it belongs to, which means that you run the risk of having your cover letter and resume accidentally discarded and your application ignored for being incomplete.

Keep file names short

Long file names are difficult to read and hard to identify at a glance. Plus, file names (on both Mac and Windows) have a character limit of around 255 characters or so. Exceed that number, and you won’t even be able to save your file.

Leave out the date and version number

Generally, there’s no need to date your cover letter and resume — especially if you haven’t updated them for years. You don’t want an employer to know that you’re using the same old, basic cover letter specimen or resume template you’ve used since 2010.

The same principle applies to version numbers. You want your cover letter and resume to stand out on their own as final, definitive products, so leave out the “v3”. Remember, this is a job application, not a perpetually unfinished piece of software.

Don't use special characters

Use A-Z, 0-9, dashes, and underscores only. Ditch any special characters, symbols, or slashes. This includes accents. There's no need to get fancy with your file name — call it a “resume,” not a “résumé.”

Don’t touch the spacebar

Unfortunately, cover letter and resume file names with spaces in them will convert to “%20” symbols upon uploading to certain Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) — so a seemingly well-titled “John Smith Resume.pdf” will become "John%20Smith%20Resume.pdf," which is awkward and hard to read. If you need to space out words, dashes and underscores are your friends.

Don't worry about capitalization

You can write your file names in either title case, sentence case, or in all lowercase. Most employers don’t care either way, so it’s not a big deal — though title case (capitalizing the first letter of words) is arguably easier to read and looks more polished than the other two options.

Order doesn't matter

When combining your name, job title, ID, "resume," or anything else into a file name, it doesn't matter which order you list them in. For example, “JohnSmith_Resume.pdf” or “CoverLetter_JohnSmith.pdf” would both be fine.

Follow instructions on the job posting

Any specific instructions on the job listing override any tips in this article. If the job ad specifies a specific file type (e.g., .docx over .pdf) or a particular naming convention (e.g., include your middle initial), then always name and upload your cover letter and resume in line with those directions instead.

You should also try to add skills and keywords included in the job posting on your resume. Use the skills search tool below to find some more hard skills and keywords relevant to the job you’re applying for.

Resume file formats

So far, we’ve covered how to name a cover letter and resume file, but what file type should you save it as?

Use PDFs generated in Word or Google Docs

While you may be tempted to save it as a Word document for the sake of convenience and simplicity, you should try to avoid this when possible. Different versions of Word may mess with your cover letter and resume’s formatting options, like margin widths , fonts , or headers . This means that your nicely-formatted document may not look as neat on your recruiter’s screen — or, in the worst case scenario, may not even be readable at all.

To make sure your recruiter sees what you see, you should export both your cover letter and resume as PDFs instead. Saving your finished files as PDFs ensures that all text formatting will be preserved, no matter what application a recruiter or hiring manager uses to open your cover letter or resume files. If you need to make any changes to your cover letter or resume, just edit it in your word processor, export it as a PDF again, and write over the existing PDF.

Don't use PDFs generated in Photoshop or Canva

That said, make sure you generate your PDF of either your resume or cover letter in a word processor like Microsoft Word or Google Docs. Do not use an image editing software like Photoshop or Canva which will result in your resume not being readable by Applicant Tracking Systems .

Don't use other file formats

If you use a different word processing software — like Open Office, LibreOffice, or a plain text editor — that's fine, but you should convert your file to a more standard format before sending it in. Emailing your resume as a .txt, .odt, or .odf file risks a recruiter not being able to open it.

Frequently asked questions

Why do file names matter.

The short answer: It helps recruiters identify your resume more quickly. While the way you title your cover letter and resume’s file names won’t make or break your application, it’s still important to name them in a way that’s professional and informative.

In reality, it’s good practice simply because it makes recruiters’ lives easier. After all, yours is not the only application a hiring manager will read — they likely have hundreds more to sort through — and clear cover letter and resume file names will help them find and identify your application more quickly.

Should I put my first name or last name first?

Use the format First Name Last Name — for example, "JohnSmith_Resume.pdf" instead of "SmithJohn_Resume.pdf." Why? Mostly, it's just more intuitive. If you have a surname that could also be a given name — or vice versa — it also helps clarify which is which.

Should I use my middle name?

Not unless you're instructed to, or unless you usually go by that name. If you prefer to be called Kelly Sue, then by all means, use that name on your resume file (and in your resume itself). Otherwise, stick to your first name and last name.

Why shouldn't I include the company name?

The hiring manager already works at the company you’re applying to, so it doesn't add anything useful. Instead, it makes your file name unnecessarily long and difficult to read. Some people think that this is a good way to 'personalize' your application, but it isn't — it's the content of the documents that matter, not the file name.

Does it matter if I send my resume as a Word .doc file instead of a .pdf format?

Not really, no. If you’re not comfortable saving your file as a PDF, you can elect to send in your cover letter and resume as a Word document (or a Google Doc). Just be aware that you run the risk of formatting issues if you do so.

Do I combine my resume and cover letter or send them separately?

Unless specified, do not combine your resume and cover letter into one document. Upload them separately.

Get your resume right

Apart from getting your cover letter and resume’s file names and file types down, you’ll also need to make sure that the content within those documents — especially your resume — is well-written.

Resume Worded’s Score My Resume is an instant, AI-enabled resume scoring platform that audits your resume line by line, and gives you feedback on how to improve — helping you maximize your chances of landing a dream job.

Score My Resume analyzes your resume, looking for ways to optimize it even further

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How To Name Your Resume and Cover Letter

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How to Name Your Resume File

Avoid generic titles, use your name, go beyond just your name (maybe), be professional, be consistent, avoid version numbers, proofread and edit, options for saving your resume, how to send your resume, sample resume.

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When you are applying for jobs, it's important to give your  resume a title that makes it clear that the resume is yours, not just that of any random candidate.

It is particularly important when you send employers your resume and cover letter as attachments (either via email or through an online job application system). When the employer opens your document, he or she will see what you have named your document. You, therefore, want the title to be professional, and to state who you are clearly.

Read below for more advice on what to name your resume file and other job application documents, as well as what not to name them. Also, read below for advice on how to save your documents.

Don't email or upload your resume with the name resume.doc, unless you want a harried human resources associate to save over your file with someone else’s. With a generic file name, there will be no way to distinguish it from all the other resumes with the same name. 

Choose a file name that includes your name. This way, hiring managers will know whose resume it is, and it will be easier for them to track and manage it. It’s also less likely that they’ll lose it, or get your materials confused with someone else’s.

If you name your resume janedoeresume.doc, Jane Doe Resume.docx, or Jane-Doe-Resume.pdf, the employer will know whose resume it is at a glance and be able to associate it with the rest of your materials and application.

If you can fit it, use both your first name and last name. This way, your resume won't get confused with someone else's resume with the same name.

You might choose to provide a bit more detail in the title than simply your name. You can also include the title of the position in your document name for your resume and cover letter. You can use spaces or dashes between words; capitalizing words may help make the document name easier to read.

Remember that hiring managers and other people who will interview you are quite likely to see your cover letter and resume file names, so make sure those titles are professional and appropriate. Now is not the time to pull out your AIM screen names from middle school. Save the joke names for your private social media accounts and keep these file names professional and simple.

Consistency is important when naming your resume, cover letter, and other application documents, so use the same format for each. For example, if you simply use your last name and a description of the document for one title (“Smith Resume”), use the same format for all your other materials (“Smith Cover Letter”).

Make sure any capitalization, spacing, use of dashes, and other style choices are consistent between documents.

If you are applying for jobs frequently, it's possible that you have several versions of your resume saved on your computer. Avoid including version numbers (e.g., John-Smith-Resume-10.doc) in your file name and other cryptic codes.

Get rid of those numbers and codes when you submit your resume. An employer might get the impression that the job is halfway down a long list of potential opportunities. A hiring manager who sees “resume-10” as part of your file name will wonder what resumes 1 through 9 looked like and whether you’re just applying for every job in town.

Develop a filing system on your computer to keep track of the different versions of your resume, rather than using the file name for that purpose, and make sure that proofed, ready-to-go resumes are stored in a separate area from drafts.

Before submitting your resume or cover letter,  proofread  the document title. It sounds silly, but a typo in the title might make an employer think that you do not focus on details and that you are unprofessional.

It's important to send or upload your resume as a PDF or a Word document. This way, the receiver will get a copy of your resume and cover letter in the original format.

To name your Word document resume:

  • Click File, Save As
  • Type the name you want to use for your resume. For example, malcolmjonesresume.docx

To save a Word document as a PDF:

To convert your Word documents to PDFs, depending on your word processing software, you may be able to do so by clicking either "File," then "Save as PDF" or “File,” then “Print,” then “Save as PDF” (from the list of menu options in the bottom left-hand corner). If not, there are free programs you can use to convert a file to a PDF.

To save a Google Doc resume as a Word document:

  • Open the file in Google Docs
  • Click File, Download, Microsoft Word (.docx)

To save a Google Doc resume as a PDF document:

  • Click File, Download, PDF (.pdf)

Saving your resume and cover letter as a PDF will ensure that the formatting stays the same, even if the employer uses a different word processing program or operating system.

If the job listing requires you to submit your documents in a different format, be sure to do so. Not following instructions could cost you an interview.

Once you've named and saved your resume and cover letter, follow the directions in the job posting for applying for the position. You may need to send your application materials as an attachment , upload them to a job site, or upload them directly to an employer's application portal.

This is an example of a resume. Download the resume template (compatible with Google Docs and Word Online).

Sample Resume (Text Version)

Carly Candidate 999 Main Street, Aspen, CO 81611 (123) 555-1234


Charismatic and creatively talented Event Manager positioned to impress your clients, associates, and project stakeholders with flawlessly executed meetings, galas, conferences, trade shows, banquets, and celebratory events.


  • 8 years’ experience planning and handling all logistics for high-profile events including conferences, galas, weddings, ski and mountain excursions, and golf tournaments.
  • Superb customer service and concierge talents supported by a positive attitude, charming manners, and a proactive stance in identifying and fulfilling individuals’ needs.
  • Well-versed in coordinating and supervising cross-functional events teams of caterers, wait staff, set-up and maintenance crews, and security personnel.
  • Bilingual in written and spoken English and Spanish, with high fluency in French.


SUMMIT RESORT, Aspen, CO Event Manager , October 2020 - Present Coordinate and direct community and private events for clientele of upscale mountain resort, including ski excursions, destination weddings, and conferences.

  • Impressed and earned referrals and repeated corporate leadership and development conference engagements from executives from Microsoft, Google, and Windermere Real Estate.
  • Initiated social media marketing initiatives that increased the client base by more than 40%.
  • Developed mutually advantageous relationships with media representatives to publicize resort events.

RIDGEWAY RESORT AND CONFERENCE CENTER, Aspen, CO Event Manager , September 2013 - October 2020 Organized golf outings and corporate fundraising tournaments for guests of 5-star resort and conference center. Scheduled greens times and arranged for outdoor catering and post-events including cocktail parties and raffles; handled all related marketing tasks for fundraisers.

  • Capitalized upon opportunities to up-sell resort amenities to conference guests, driving an overall revenue increase of 15% for spa, restaurant, and pool grill.
  • Implemented stringent billing processes that reduced delinquent accounts by 85%.
  • Organized golf tournaments that were written up in Golf Today and NonProfit Times.

Bachelor of Science in Travel and Tourism Management; GPA 3.8 MSU Denver, Denver, Colorado Dean’s List; Graduated Magna cum Laude; Rush Chair, Sigma Sigma Sigma Sorority

How to Write a Cover Letter: Your Full Guide (With Tips and Examples)

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It’s a familiar cycle: You sit down to write a cover letter, open a blank document, check your email, browse cover letter examples , do some chores, watch that cursor blink a few more times, and finally Google something like “how to write a cover letter”—which hopefully brought you here. But you still might be thinking, does anyone really read cover letters? Why do they even exist?

First: Yes, we can assure you that cover letters do, in fact, get read. To some hiring managers, they’re the most important part of your job application. And regardless, you don’t want to miss the opportunity to tell prospective employers who you are, showcase why they should hire you, and stand out above all the other candidates.

To ensure your letter is in amazing shape (and crafting it is as painless as possible), we’ve got easy-to-follow steps plus examples, a few bonus tips, and answers to frequently asked questions.

Get that cover letter out there! Browse open jobs on The Muse and find your dream job »

What is a cover letter and why is it important?

A cover letter is a brief (one page or less) note that you write to a hiring manager or recruiter to go along with your resume and other application materials.

Done well, a cover letter gives you the chance to speak directly to how your skills and experience line up with the specific job you’re pursuing. It also affords you an opportunity to hint to the reviewer that you’re likable, original, and likely to be a great addition to the team.

Instead of using cover letters to their strategic advantage, most job applicants blabber on and on about what they want, toss out bland, cliché-filled paragraphs that essentially just regurgitate their resume, or go off on some strange tangent in an effort to be unique. Given this reality, imagine the leg up you’ll have once you learn how to do cover letters right.

How long should a cover letter be?

An ideal cover letter typically ranges from a half page to one full page. Aim to structure it into four paragraphs, totaling around 250 to 400 words, unless the job posting states otherwise. Some employers may have specific guidelines like word or character limits, writing prompt, or questions to address. In such cases, be sure to follow these instructions from the job posting.

How to write a cover letter hiring managers will love

Now that you’re sold on how important cover letters are, here are eight steps to writing one that screams, “I’m a great hire!”

Step 1: Write a fresh cover letter for each job (but yes, you can use a template)

Sure, it’s way faster and easier to take the cover letter you wrote for your last application, change the name of the company, and send it off. But most employers want to see that you’re truly excited about the specific position and organization—which means creating a custom letter for each position.

While it’s OK to recycle a few strong sentences and phrases from one cover letter to the next, don’t even think about sending out a 100% generic letter. “Dear Hiring Manager, I am excited to apply to the open position at your company” is an immediate signal to recruiters and hiring managers that you’re mass-applying to every job listing that pops up on LinkedIn.

At the same time, there’s nothing that says you can’t get a little help: Try out one of our free cover letter templates to make the process a bit easier.

Step 2: Add your contact info

At the top of your cover letter, you should list out your basic info. You can even copy the same heading from your resume if you’d like. Some contact info you might include (and the order to include it in):

  • Your pronouns (optional)
  • Your location (optional)
  • Your email address
  • Your phone number (optional)
  • Your Linkedin, portfolio, or personal website URL (optional)

Note that only name and email are mandatory, and you don’t need to put a full address on a cover letter or resume anymore. A city and state (or metro area) are more than enough. So your header might look like this:

Inigo Montoya he/him Florin Metropolitan Area [email protected] 555-999-2222

If the job posting tells you to submit your cover letter in the body of an email, you can add your contact info at the end, after your name (and if you’d like to forgo the email address here, you can—they have it already). So your sign off could look like this:

Violet Baudelaire she/her [email protected] 123-123-1234

Step 3: Address your cover letter to the hiring manager—preferably by name

The most traditional way to address a cover letter is to use the person’s first and last name, including “Mr.” or “Ms.” (for example, “Dear Ms. Jane Smith” or just “Dear Ms. Smith”). But to avoid accidentally using the wrong title—or worse, inadvertently misgendering someone—first and last name also work just fine.

If “Dear” feels a bit too stiff, try “Hello.” But never use generic salutations like “ To Whom it May Concern ” or “Dear Sir or Madam.”

For more help, read these rules for addressing your cover letter and a few tips for how to find the hiring manager .

Step 4: Craft an opening paragraph that’ll hook your reader

Your opening sets the stage for the whole cover letter. So you want it to be memorable, friendly, conversational, and hyper-relevant to the job you’re pursuing.

No need to lead with your name—the hiring manager can see it already. But it’s good to mention the job you’re applying for (they may be combing through candidates for half a dozen different jobs).

You could go with something simple like, “I am excited to apply for [job] with [Company].” But consider introducing yourself with a snappy first paragraph that highlights your excitement about the company you’re applying to, your passion for the work you do, and/or your past accomplishments.

This is a prime spot to include the “why” for your application. Make it very clear why you want this job at this company. Are you a longtime user of their products? Do you have experience solving a problem they’re working on? Do you love their brand voice or approach to product development? Do your research on the company (and check out their Muse profile if they have one) to find out.

Read this next: 30 Genius Cover Letter Openers Recruiters Will LOVE

Step 5: Convey why you’d be a great hire for this job

A common cover letter mistake is only talking about how great the position would be for you. Frankly, hiring managers are aware of that—what they really want to know is what you’re going to bring to the position and company.

So once you’ve got the opening under wraps, you should pull out a few key ideas that will make up the backbone of your cover letter. They should show that you understand what the organization is looking for and spell out how your background lines up with the position.

Study the job description for hints . What problems is the company looking to solve with this hire? What skills or experiences are mentioned high up, or more than once? These will likely be the most important qualifications.

If you tend to have a hard time singing your own praises and can’t nail down your strengths , here’s a quick trick: What would your favorite boss, your best friend, or your mentor say about you? How would they sing your praises? Use the answers to inform how you write about yourself. You can even weave in feedback you’ve received to strengthen your case (occasionally, don’t overuse this!). For example:

“When I oversaw our last office move, my color-coded spreadsheets covering every minute detail of the logistics were legendary; my manager said I was so organized, she’d trust me to plan an expedition to Mars.”

Step 6: Back up your qualifications with examples and numbers

Look at your list of qualifications from the previous step, and think of examples from your past that prove you have them. Go beyond your resume. Don’t just regurgitate what the hiring manager can read elsewhere.

Simply put, you want to paint a fuller picture of what experiences and accomplishments make you a great hire and show off what you can sashay through their doors with and deliver once you land the job.

For example, what tells a hiring manager more about your ability to win back former clients? This: “I was in charge of identifying and re-engaging former clients.” Or this: “By analyzing past client surveys, NPS scores, and KPIs, as well as simply picking up the phone, I was able to bring both a data-driven approach and a human touch to the task of re-engaging former clients.”

If you're having trouble figuring out how to do this, try asking yourself these questions and finding answers that line up with the qualifications you’ve chosen to focus on:

  • What approach did you take to tackling one of the responsibilities you’ve mentioned on your resume?
  • What details would you include if you were telling someone a (very short!) story about how you accomplished one of your resume bullet points?
  • What about your personality, passion, or work ethic made you especially good at getting the job done?

Come up with your examples, then throw in a few numbers. Hiring managers love to see stats—they show you’ve had a measurable impact on an organization you’ve worked for. Did you bring in more clients than any of your peers? Put together an impressive number of events? Make a process at work 30% more efficient? Work it into your cover letter!

This might help: How to Quantify Your Resume Bullets (When You Don't Work With Numbers)

Step 7: Finish with a strong conclusion

It’s tempting to treat the final lines of your cover letter as a throwaway: “I look forward to hearing from you.” But your closing paragraph is your last chance to emphasize your enthusiasm for the company or how you’d be a great fit for the position. You can also use the end of your letter to add important details—like, say, the fact that you’re willing to relocate for the job.

Try something like this:

“I believe my energy, desire to innovate, and experience as a sales leader will serve OrangePurple Co. very well. I would love to meet to discuss the value I could add as your next West Coast Sales Director. I appreciate your consideration and hope to meet with you soon.”

Then be sure to sign off professionally , with an appropriate closing and your first and last name. (Need help? Here are three cover letter closing lines that make hiring managers grimace, plus some better options .)

Step 8: Reread and revise

We shouldn’t have to tell you to run your cover letter through spell-check, but remember that having your computer scan for typos isn’t the same as editing . Set your letter aside for a day or even just a few hours, and then read through it again with fresh eyes—you’ll probably notice some changes you want to make.

You might even want to ask a friend or family member to give it a look. In addition to asking them if they spot any errors, you should ask them two questions:

  • Does this sell me as the best person for the job?
  • Does it get you excited?

If the answer to either is “no,” or even slight hesitation, go back for another pass.

Cover letter examples

Here are four example cover letters that follow the advice given above. Keep in mind that different situations may require adjustments in your approach. For instance, experienced job seekers can emphasize accomplishments from previous roles, while those with less experience might highlight volunteer work, personal projects, or skills gained through education.

Example #1: Cover letter for a job application

Alia Farhat San Francisco Bay Area [email protected] 444-000-1111

Hello Danny Tanaka,

If I’m being honest, I still haven’t fully gotten over the death of my first Tamagotchi pet when I was six years old. (His name was Tommy, and I’ve gotten far more creative since then, I promise.) When I was older, I discovered NeoPets and I was hooked for years—not just on the site, but on the community that surrounded it. So when I heard about FantasyPets last year, I immediately started following news about your development process, and that’s how I saw your post looking for a marketing strategist. Not only do I have eight years of experience in digital marketing, but as a lifelong gamer with a passion for pet-focused titles who’s spent years in online communities with like-minded people, I also know exactly what kind of messaging resonates with your target audience.

You’re looking for someone to help you craft a social media marketing campaign to go along with your game launch, and I’ve been a part of three launch-day marketing campaigns for mobile and web-based games. In my current role as social media manager at Phun Inc., I proposed a campaign across Twitter, Instagram, and TikTok based on competitor research and analysis of our social campaigns for similar games to go along with the launch of the mobile game FarmWorld. Using my strategy of featuring both kids and adults in ads, we ended up driving over one million impressions and 80k downloads in the first three months.

I’ve always believed that the best way to find the right messaging for a game is to understand the audience and immerse myself in it as much as possible. I spend some of my research time on gaming forums and watching Twitch streams and Let’s Plays to see what really matters to the audience and how they talk about it. Of course, I always back my strategies up with data—I’m even responsible for training new members of the marketing team at Phun Inc. in Google AdWords and data visualization.

I believe that my passion for games exactly like yours, my digital marketing and market research experience, and my flair for turning data into actionable insights will help put FantasyPets on the map. I see so much promise in this game, and as a future player, I want to see its user base grow as much as you do. I appreciate your consideration for the marketing strategist role and hope to speak with you soon.

Alia Farhat

Example #2: Cover letter for an internship

Mariah Johnson

New York, NY [email protected] 555-000-1234

Dear Hiring Manager,

I am excited to submit my application for the software development internship at Big Tech. As a student at New York University majoring in computer science with a keen interest in social studies, I believe I would be a good fit for the role. Big Tech's mission to promote equality and a more sustainable world is deeply inspiring, and I would be thrilled to contribute to this mission.

In a recent hackathon, I demonstrated my ability to lead a team in designing and developing an app that directs members of a small community to nearby electronics recycling centers. My team successfully developed a working prototype and presented it to a panel of industry experts who awarded us second place.

I’ve also been an active volunteer at my local library for over four years. During this time, I organized book donation drives, led book fairs, and conducted reading sessions with children. This experience strengthened my presentation and communication skills and confirmed my motivation stems from supporting a good cause. I would be more than happy to bring my passion and dedication to an organization whose mission resonates with me..

Through these experiences, along with my coursework in software engineering, I am confident I am able to navigate the challenges of the Big Tech internship program. I look forward to the opportunity to speak with you about my qualifications. Thank you for your consideration.

Example #3: Cover letter with no experience

Sarah Bergman

Philadelphia, PA [email protected] 1234-555-6789

Dear Chloe West,

I’m excited to apply for the entry-level copywriting position at Idea Agency. As a recent graduate from State University with a major in mass communications, I’m eager to delve deeper into copywriting for brands, marketing strategies, and their roles in the business world.

Over the past two years, I’ve completed courses in creative writing, copywriting, and essentials of digital marketing. I’ve also been actively involved in extracurricular activities, creating content and promoting student events across multiple online platforms. These experiences expanded my creativity, enhanced my teamwork skills, and strengthened my communication abilities.

As an admirer of your visionary marketing campaigns and Idea Agency’s commitment to sustainability, I’m enthusiastic about the prospect of joining your team. I'm confident that I can contribute to your future projects with inventive thinking and creative energy.

I welcome the opportunity to discuss my qualifications further. Thank you for considering my application.

Best regards,

Example #4: Career change cover letter

Leslie Smith

Chicago, IL [email protected] 111-222-3344

Dear Paul Jones,

Over the past year, I’ve volunteered to represent my company at a local fair and there I discovered how much fun working face to face with clients would be. Everytime I sold a product for The Solar Company, I often wished it was my full-time job. Now, I'm excited to submit my application for the sales coordinator position with Bloom Sales.

After completing a degree in business administration, I decided to put my outgoing personality and strong communication skills to work as a sales specialist at The Solar Company. I’ve sharpened my presentation and critical thinking skills in client meetings and sourced more than $20,000 in new partnerships. This experience has given me an invaluable foundation, and now I’m confident it's the time to move business administration to sales coordination.

I’m comfortable seeking out new business opportunities, making cold calls, and selling potential clients on the advantages of Bloom Sales products. I attend an average of 10 in-person meetings a week, and interacting with a lot of different personalities is what excites me the most. As a detail-oriented, tech-savvy professional, I have advanced knowledge of Excel and data analysis.

I would love to learn more about your sales strategy for the second semester and discuss how my experience in business administration and client-facing sales exposure would help Bloom Sales achieve its goals. Thank you for your consideration.

Extra cover letter examples

  • Pain point cover letter example
  • Recent graduate cover letter example
  • Stay-at-home parent returning to work cover letter example
  • Sales cover letter example
  • Email marketing manager cover letter example
  • No job description or position cover letter example (a.k.a., a letter of intent or interest)
  • Buzzfeed-style cover letter example
  • Creative cover letter example (from the point-of-view of a dog)

Bonus cover letter tips to give you an edge over the competition

As you write your cover letter, here are a few more tips to consider to help you stand out from the stack of applicants:

  • Keep it short and sweet: There are always exceptions to the rule, but in general, for resumes and cover letters alike, don’t go over a page. (Check out these tips for cutting down your cover letter .)
  • Never apologize for your missing experience: When you don’t meet all of the job requirements, it’s tempting to use lines like, “Despite my limited experience as a manager…” or “While I may not have direct experience in marketing…” But why apologize ? Instead of drawing attention to your weaknesses, emphasize the strengths and transferable skills you do have.
  • Strike the right tone: You want to find a balance between being excessively formal in your writing—which can make you come off as stiff or insincere—and being too conversational. Let your personality shine through, for sure, but also keep in mind that a cover letter shouldn’t sound like a text to an old friend.
  • Consider writing in the company’s “voice:” Cover letters are a great way to show that you understand the environment and culture of the company and industry. Spending some time reading over the company website or stalking their social media before you get started can be a great way to get in the right mindset—you’ll get a sense for the company’s tone, language, and culture, which are all things you’ll want to mirror—especially if writing skills are a core part of the job.
  • Go easy on the enthusiasm: We can’t tell you how many cover letters we’ve seen from people who are “absolutely thrilled for the opportunity” or “very excitedly applying!” Yes, you want to show personality, creativity, and excitement. But downplay the adverbs a bit, and keep the level of enthusiasm for the opportunity genuine and believable.

The bottom line with cover letters is this: They matter, much more than the naysayers will have you believe. If you nail yours, you could easily go from the “maybe” pile straight to “Oh, hell yes.”

Cover letter FAQs (a.k.a., everything else you need to know about cover letters)

  • Are cover letters still necessary?
  • Do I have to write a cover letter if it’s optional?
  • Can I skip the cover letter for a tech job?
  • What does it mean to write a cover letter for a resume?
  • How can I write a simple cover letter in 30 minutes?
  • How can I show personality in my cover letter?
  • What should I name my cover letter file?
  • Is a letter of intent different from a cover letter?
  • Is a letter of interest different from a cover letter?

Regina Borsellino , Jenny Foss , and Amanda Cardoso contributed writing, reporting, and/or advice to this article.

cover letter name of employer

How to Write a Cover Letter [Full Guide & Examples for 2024]

Background Image

After weeks of heavy job searching, you’re almost there!

You’ve perfected your resume.

You’ve short-listed the coolest jobs you want to apply for.

You’ve even had a friend train you for every single interview question out there.

But then, before you can send in your application and call it a day, you remember that you need to write a cover letter too.

So now, you’re stuck staring at a blank page, wondering where to start...

Don’t panic! We’ve got you covered. Writing a cover letter is a lot simpler than you might think. 

In this guide, we’re going to teach you how to write a cover letter that gets you the job you deserve.

We're going to cover:

What Is a Cover Letter?

  • How to Write the Perfect Cover Letter, Step by Step
  • 15+ Job-Winning Cover Letter Examples

Let’s get started.

A cover letter is a document that you submit as part of your job application, alongside your resume or CV.

The purpose of a cover letter is to introduce you and briefly summarize your professional background. On average, it should be around 250 to 400 words long .

A good cover letter is supposed to impress the hiring manager and convince them you’re worth interviewing as a candidate.

So, how can your cover letter achieve this?

First of all, it should complement your resume, not copy it. Your cover letter is your chance to elaborate on important achievements, skills, or anything else that your resume doesn’t give you the space to cover. 

For example, if you have an employment gap on your resume, the cover letter is a great place to explain why it happened and how it helped you grow as a person. 

If this is your first time writing a cover letter, writing about yourself might seem complicated. But don’t worry—you don’t need to be super creative or even a good writer .

All you have to do is follow this tried and tested cover letter structure:

structure of a cover letter

  • Header. Add all the necessary contact information at the top of your cover letter.
  • Formal greeting. Choose an appropriate way to greet your target audience.
  • Introduction. Introduce yourself in the opening paragraph and explain your interest in the role.
  • Body. Elaborate on why you’re the best candidate for the job and a good match for the company. Focus on “selling” your skills, achievements, and relevant professional experiences.
  • Conclusion. Summarize your key points and wrap it up professionally.

Now, let’s take a look at an example of a cover letter that follows our structure perfectly:

How to Write a Cover Letter

New to cover letter writing? Give our cover letter video a watch before diving into the article!

When Should You Write a Cover Letter?

You should always include a cover letter in your job application, even if the hiring manager never reads it. Submitting a cover letter is as important as submitting a resume if you want to look like a serious candidate.

If the employer requests a cover letter as part of the screening process, not sending one is a huge red flag and will probably get your application tossed into the “no” pile immediately.

On the other hand, if the job advertisement doesn’t require a cover letter from the candidates, adding one shows you went the extra mile.

Putting in the effort to write a cover letter can set you apart from other candidates with similar professional experience and skills, and it could even sway the hiring manager to call you for an interview if you do it right.

Need to write a letter to help get you into a good school or volunteer program? Check out our guide to learn how to write a motivation letter !

How to Write the Perfect Cover Letter

Now that you know what a cover letter is, it’s time to learn how to write one!

We’ll go through the process in detail, step by step.

#1. Choose the Right Cover Letter Template

A good cover letter is all about leaving the right first impression.

So, what’s a better way to leave a good impression than a well-formatted, stylish template?

cover letter templates for 2024

Just choose one of our hand-picked cover letter templates , and you’ll be all set in no time!

As a bonus, our intuitive AI will even give you suggestions on how to improve your cover letter as you write it. You’ll have the perfect cover letter done in minutes!

cover letter templates

#2. Put Contact Information in the Header

As with a resume, it’s important to start your cover letter with your contact details at the top. These should be in your cover letter’s header, separated neatly from the bulk of your text.

Contact Information on Cover Letter

Here, you want to include all the essential contact information , including:

  • Full Name. Your first and last name should stand out at the top.
  • Job Title. Match the professional title underneath your name to the exact job title of the position you’re applying for. Hiring managers often hire for several roles at once, so giving them this cue about what role you’re after helps things go smoother.
  • Email Address. Always use a professional and easy-to-spell email address. Ideally, it should combine your first and last names.
  • Phone Number. Add a number where the hiring manager can easily reach you.
  • Location. Add your city and state/country, no need for more details.
  • Relevant Links (optional). You can add links to websites or social media profiles that are relevant to your field. Examples include a LinkedIn profile , Github, or an online portfolio.

Then it’s time to add the recipient’s contact details, such as:

  • Hiring Manager's Name. If you can find the name of the hiring manager, add it.
  • Hiring Manager's Title. While there’s no harm in writing “hiring manager,” if they’re the head of the department, we recommend you use that title accordingly.
  • Company Name. Make sure to write the name of the company you're applying to.
  • Location. The city and state/country are usually enough information here, too.
  • Date of Writing (Optional). You can include the date you wrote your cover letter for an extra professional touch.

matching resume and cover letter

#3. Address the Hiring Manager

Once you’ve properly listed all the contact information, it’s time to start writing the content of the cover letter.

The first thing you need to do here is to address your cover letter directly to the hiring manager.

In fact, you want to address the hiring manager personally .

Forget the old “Dear Sir or Madam” or the impersonal “To Whom It May Concern.” You want to give your future boss a good impression and show them that you did your research before sending in your application.

No one wants to hire a job seeker who just spams 20+ companies and hopes something sticks with their generic approach

So, how do you find out who’s the hiring manager?

First, check the job ad. The hiring manager’s name might be listed somewhere in it.

If that doesn’t work, check the company’s LinkedIn page. You just need to look up the head of the relevant department you’re applying to, and you’re all set.

For example, if you’re applying for the position of Communication Specialist at Novorésumé. The hiring manager is probably the Head of Communications or the Chief Communications Officer.

Here’s what you should look for on LinkedIn:

linkedin search cco

And there you go! You have your hiring manager.

But let’s say you’re applying for a position as a server . In that case, you’d be looking for the “restaurant manager” or “food and beverage manager.”

If the results don’t come up with anything, try checking out the “Team” page on the company website; there’s a good chance you’ll at least find the right person there.

Make sure to address them as Mr. or Ms., followed by their last name. If you’re not sure about their gender or marital status, you can just stick to their full name, like so:

  • Dear Mr. Kurtuy,
  • Dear Andrei Kurtuy,

But what if you still can’t find the hiring manager’s name, no matter where you look?

No worries. You can direct your cover letter to the company, department, or team as a whole, or just skip the hiring manager’s name.

  • Dear [Department] Hiring Manager
  • Dear Hiring Manager
  • Dear [Department] Team
  • Dear [Company Name]

Are you applying for a research position? Learn how to write an academic personal statement .

#4. Write an Eye-Catching Introduction

First impressions matter, especially when it comes to your job search.

Hiring managers get hundreds, sometimes even thousands, of applications. Chances are, they’re not going to be reading every single cover letter end-to-end.

So, it’s essential to catch their attention from the very first paragraph.

The biggest problem with most opening paragraphs is that they’re usually extremely generic. Here’s an example:

  • My name is Jonathan, and I’d like to work as a Sales Manager at XYZ Inc. I’ve worked as a Sales Manager at MadeUpCompany Inc. for 5+ years, so I believe that I’d be a good fit for the position.

See the issue here? This opening paragraph doesn’t say anything except the fact that you’ve worked the job before.

And do you know who else has similar work experience? All the other applicants you’re competing with.

Instead, you want to start with some of your top achievements to grab the reader’s attention. And to get the point across, the achievements should be as relevant as possible to the position.

Your opening paragraph should also show the hiring manager a bit about why you want this specific job. For example, mention how the job relates to your plans for the future or how it can help you grow professionally. This will show the hiring manager that you’re not just applying left and right—you’re actually enthusiastic about getting this particular role.

Now, let’s make our previous example shine:

Dear Mr. Smith,

My name’s Michael, and I’d like to help XYZ Inc. hit and exceed its sales goals as a Sales Manager. I’ve worked as a Sales Representative with Company X, another fin-tech company , for 3+ years, where I generated an average of $30,000+ in sales per month and beat the KPIs by around 40%. I believe that my previous industry experience, passion for finance , and excellence in sales make me the right candidate for the job.

The second candidate starts with what they can do for the company in the future and immediately lists an impressive and relevant achievement. Since they’re experienced in the same industry and interested in finance, the hiring manager can see they’re not just a random applicant.

From this introduction, it’s safe to say that the hiring manager would read the rest of this candidate’s cover letter.

#5. Use the Cover Letter Body for Details

The next part of your cover letter is where you can go into detail about what sets you apart as a qualified candidate for the job.

The main thing you need to remember here is that you shouldn’t make it all about yourself . Your cover letter is supposed to show the hiring manager how you relate to the job and the company you’re applying to.

No matter how cool you make yourself sound in your cover letter, if you don’t tailor it to match what the hiring manager is looking for, you’re not getting an interview.

To get this right, use the job ad as a reference when writing your cover letter. Make sure to highlight skills and achievements that match the job requirements, and you’re good to go.

Since this part of your cover letter is by far the longest, you should split it into at least two paragraphs.

Here’s what each paragraph should cover:

Explain Why You’re the Perfect Candidate for the Role

Before you can show the hiring manager that you’re exactly what they’ve been looking for, you need to know what it is they’re looking for.

Start by doing a bit of research. Learn what the most important skills and responsibilities of the role are according to the job ad, and focus on any relevant experience you have that matches them.

For example, if you’re applying for the position of a Facebook Advertiser. The top requirements on the job ad are:

  • Experience managing a Facebook ad budget of $10,000+ / month
  • Some skills in advertising on other platforms (Google Search + Twitter)
  • Excellent copywriting skills

So, in the body of your cover letter, you need to show how you meet these requirements. Here’s an example of what that can look like:

In my previous role as a Facebook Marketing Expert at XYZ Inc. I handled customer acquisition through ads, managing a monthly Facebook ad budget of $40,000+ . As the sole digital marketer at the company, I managed the ad creation and management process end-to-end. I created the ad copy and images, picked the targeting, ran optimization trials, and so on.

Other than Facebook advertising, I’ve also delved into other online PPC channels, including:

  • Google Search

Our example addresses all the necessary requirements and shows off the candidate’s relevant skills.

Are you a student applying for your first internship? Learn how to write an internship cover letter with our dedicated guide.

Explain Why You’re a Good Fit for the Company

As skilled and experienced as you may be, that’s not all the hiring manager is looking for.

They also want someone who’s a good fit for their company and who actually wants to work there.

Employees who don’t fit in with the company culture are likely to quit sooner or later. This ends up costing the company a ton of money, up to 50% of the employee’s annual salary , so hiring managers vet candidates very carefully to avoid this scenario.

So, you have to convince the hiring manager that you’re passionate about working with them.

Start by doing some research about the company. You want to know things like:

  • What’s the company’s business model?
  • What’s the company’s product or service? Have you used it?
  • What’s the company’s culture like?

Chances are, you’ll find all the information you need either on the company website or on job-search websites like Jobscan or Glassdoor.

Then, pick your favorite thing about the company and talk about it in your cover letter.

But don’t just describe the company in its own words just to flatter them. Be super specific—the hiring manager can see through any fluff.

For example, if you’re passionate about their product and you like the company’s culture of innovation and independent work model, you can write something like:

I’ve personally used the XYZ Smartphone, and I believe that it’s the most innovative tech I’ve used in years. The features, such as Made-Up-Feature #1 and Made-Up-Feature #2, were real game changers for the device.

I really admire how Company XYZ strives for excellence in all its product lines, creating market-leading tech. As someone who thrives in a self-driven environment, I truly believe that I’ll be a great match for your Product Design team.

So, make sure to do your fair share of research and come up with good reasons why you're applying to that specific company.

Is the company you want to work for not hiring at the moment? Check out our guide to writing a letter of interest .

#6. Wrap It Up and Sign It

Finally, it’s time to conclude your cover letter.

In the final paragraph, you want to:

  • Wrap up any points you couldn't make in the previous paragraphs. Do you have anything left to say? If there’s any other information that could help the hiring manager make their decision, mention it here. If not, just recap your key selling points so far, such as key skills and expertise.
  • Express gratitude. Politely thanking the hiring manager for their time is always a good idea.
  • Finish the cover letter with a call to action. The very last sentence in your cover letter should be a call to action. This means you should ask the hiring manager to do something, like call you and discuss your application or arrange an interview.
  • Remember to sign your cover letter. Just add a formal closing line and sign your name at the bottom.

Here’s an example of how to end your cover letter :

I hope to help Company X make the most of their Facebook marketing initiatives. I'd love to further discuss how my previous success at XYZ Inc. can help you achieve your Facebook marketing goals. Please don’t hesitate to reach out to me at the provided email address or phone number so that we may arrange an interview.

Thank you for your consideration,

Alice Richards

Feel free to use one of these other popular closing lines for your cover letter:

  • Best Regards,
  • Kind Regards,

Cover Letter Writing Checklist

Once you’re done with your cover letter, it’s time to check if it meets all industry requirements. 

Give our handy cover letter writing checklist a look to make sure:

Does your cover letter heading include all essential information?

  • Professional Email
  • Phone Number
  • Relevant Links

Do you address the right person? 

  • The hiring manager in the company
  • Your future direct supervisor
  • The company/department in general

Does your introductory paragraph grab the reader's attention?

  • Did you mention some of your top achievements?
  • Did you use numbers and facts to back up your experience?
  • Did you convey enthusiasm for the specific role?

Do you show that you’re the right candidate for the job?

  • Did you identify the core requirements for the role?
  • Did you show how your experiences helped you fit the requirements perfectly?

Do you convince the hiring manager that you’re passionate about the company you’re applying to?

  • Did you identify the top 3 things that you like about the company?
  • Did you avoid generic reasons for explaining your interest in the company?

Did you conclude your cover letter properly?

  • Did you recap your key selling points in the conclusion?
  • Did you end your cover letter with a call to action?
  • Did you use the right formal closing line and sign your name?

15 Cover Letter Tips

Now you’re all set to write your cover letter! 

Before you start typing, here are some cover letter tips to help take your cover letter to the next level:

  • Customize Your Cover Letter for Each Job. Make sure your cover letter is tailored to the job you're applying for. This shows you're not just sending generic applications left and right, and it tells the hiring manager you’re the right person for the job.
  • Showcase Your Skills. Talk about how your skills meet the company’s needs. And while your hard skills should be front and center, you shouldn’t underestimate your soft skills in your cover letter either.
  • Avoid Fluff. Don’t make any generic statements you can’t back up. The hiring manager can tell when you’re just throwing words around, and it doesn’t make your cover letter look good.
  • Use Specific Examples. Instead of saying you're great at something, give an actual example to back up your claim. Any data you can provide makes you sound more credible, so quantify your achievements. For example, give numbers such as percentages related to your performance and the timeframe it took to accomplish certain achievements.
  • Research the Company. Always take time to learn about the company you're applying to. Make sure to mention something about them in your cover letter to show the hiring manager that you're interested.
  • Follow the Application Instructions. If the job posting asks for something specific in your cover letter or requires a certain format, make sure you include it. Not following instructions can come off as unattentive or signal to the hiring manager that you’re not taking the job seriously.
  • Use the Right Template and Format. Choose the right cover letter format and adapt your cover letter’s look to the industry you’re applying for. For example, if you’re aiming for a job in Law or Finance, you should go for a cleaner, more professional look. But if you’re applying for a field that values innovation, like IT or Design, you have more room for creativity.
  • Express Your Enthusiasm. Let the hiring manager know why you're excited about the job. Your passion for the specific role or the field in general can be a big selling point, and show them that you’re genuinely interested, not just applying left and right.
  • Address Any Gaps. If there are any employment gaps in your resume , your cover letter is a great place to mention why. Your resume doesn’t give you enough space to elaborate on an employment gap, so addressing it here can set hiring managers at ease—life happens, and employers understand.
  • Avoid Quirky Emails. Your email address should be presentable. It’s hard for a hiring manager to take you seriously if your email address is “[email protected].” Just use a [email protected] format.
  • Check Your Contact Information. Typos in your email address or phone number can mean a missed opportunity. Double-check these before sending your application.
  • Mention if You Want to Relocate. If you’re looking for a job that lets you move somewhere else, specify this in your cover letter.
  • Keep It Brief. You want to keep your cover letter short and sweet. Hiring managers don’t have time to read a novel, so if you go over one page, they simply won’t read it at all.
  • Use a Professional Tone. Even though a conversational tone isn’t a bad thing, remember that it's still a formal document. Show professionalism in your cover letter by keeping slang, jargon, and emojis out of it.
  • Proofread Carefully. Typos and grammar mistakes are a huge deal-breaker. Use a tool like Grammarly or QuillBot to double-check your spelling and grammar, or even get a friend to check it for you.

15+ Cover Letter Examples

Need some inspiration? Check out some perfect cover letter examples for different experience levels and various professions.

5+ Cover Letter Examples by Experience

#1. college student cover letter example.

college or student cover letter example

Check out our full guide to writing a college student cover letter here.

#2. Middle Management Cover Letter Example

Middle Management Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to writing a project manager cover letter here.

#3. Team Leader Cover Letter Example

Team Leader Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a team leader cover letter here.

#4. Career Change Cover Letter Example

Career Change Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to a career change resume and cover letter here.

#5. Management Cover Letter Example

Management Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a management cover letter here.

#6. Senior Executive Cover Letter Example

Senior Executive Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing an executive resume here.

9+ Cover Letter Examples by Profession

#1. it cover letter example.

IT Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing an IT cover letter here.

#2. Consultant Cover Letter Example

Consultant Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a consultant cover letter here.

#3. Human Resources Cover Letter

Human Resources Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to writing a human resources cover letter here.

#4. Business Cover Letter Example

Business Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a business cover letter here.

#5. Sales Cover Letter Example

Sales Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a sales cover letter here.

#6. Social Worker Cover Letter

Social Worker Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to writing a social worker cover letter here.

#7. Lawyer Cover Letter

Lawyer Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to writing a lawyer cover letter here.

#8. Administrative Assistant Cover Letter

Administrative Assistant Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to writing an administrative assistant cover letter here.

#9. Engineering Cover Letter Example

Engineering Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing an engineer cover letter here.

#10. Receptionist Cover Letter Example

Receptionist Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a receptionist cover letter here.

Need more inspiration? Check out these cover letter examples to learn what makes them stand out.

Plug & Play Cover Letter Template

Not sure how to start your cover letter? Don’t worry!

Just copy and paste our free cover letter template into the cover letter builder, and swap out the blanks for your details.

[Your Full Name]

[Your Profession]

[Your Phone Number]

[Your Email Address]

[Your Location]

[Your LinkedIn Profile URL (optional)]

[Your Personal Website URL (optional)]

[Recipient's Name, e.g., Jane Doe],

[Recipient's Position, e.g., Hiring Manager]

[Company Name, e.g., ABC Corporation]

[Company Address]

[City, State/Country]

Dear [Recipient's Name],

As a seasoned [Your Profession] with [Number of Years of Experience] years of industry experience, I am eager to express my interest in the [Job Title] position at [Company Name]. With my experience in [Your Industry/Sector] and the successes I've achieved throughout my education and career, I believe I can bring unique value and creativity to your team.

In my current role as [Your Current Job Title], I've taken the lead on more than [Number of Projects/Assignments] projects, some valued up to $[Highest Project Value]. I pride myself on consistently exceeding client expectations and have successfully [Mention a Key Achievement] in just a [Amount of Time] through [Skill] and [Skill].

I've collaborated with various professionals, such as [List Roles], ensuring that all [projects/tasks] meet [relevant standards or objectives]. This hands-on experience, coupled with my dedication to understanding each [client's/customer's] vision, has equipped me to navigate and deliver on complex projects.

My key strengths include:

  • Improving [Achievement] by [%] over [Amount of Time] which resulted in [Quantified Result].
  • Optimizing [Work Process/Responsibility] which saved [Previous Employer] [Amount of Time/Budget/Other Metric] over [Weeks/Months/Years]
  • Spearheading team of [Number of People] to [Task] and achieving [Quantified Result].

Alongside this letter, I've attached my resume. My educational background, a [Your Degree] with a concentration in [Your Specialization], complements the practical skills that I'm particularly eager to share with [Company Name].

I'm excited about the possibility of contributing to [Something Notable About the Company or Its Mission]. I'd be grateful for the chance to delve deeper into how my expertise aligns with your needs.

Thank you for considering my application, and I look forward to hearing from you soon.

The Heart of Your Job Search - Creating a Killer Resume

Your cover letter is only as good as your resume. If either one is weak, your entire application falls through.

After all, your cover letter is meant to complement your resume. Imagine going through all this effort to leave an amazing first impression in your cover letter, only for the hiring manager to never read it because your resume was mediocre.

But don’t worry; we’ve got you covered here, too.

Check out our dedicated guide on how to make a resume and learn everything you need to know to land your dream job!

Just pick one of our resume templates and start writing your own job-winning resume.

resume examples for cover letters

Key Takeaways

Now that we’ve walked you through all the steps of writing a cover letter, let’s summarize everything we’ve learned:

  • A cover letter is a 250 - 400 word document that’s meant to convince the hiring manager that you’re the best candidate for the job.
  • Your job application should always include a cover letter alongside your resume.
  • To grab the hiring manager’s attention, write a strong opening paragraph. Mention who you are, why you’re applying, and a standout achievement to pique their interest.
  • Your cover letter should focus on why you’re the perfect candidate for the job and why you’re passionate about working in this specific company.
  • Use the body of your cover letter to provide details on your skills, achievements, and qualifications, as well as make sure to convey your enthusiasm throughout your whole cover letter.
  • Recap your key selling points towards the end of your cover letter, and end it with a formal closing line and your full name signed underneath.

At Novorésumé, we’re committed to helping you get the job you deserve every step of the way! 

Follow our career blog for more valuable advice, or check out some of our top guides, such as:

  • How to Make a Resume in 2024 | Beginner's Guide
  • How to Write a CV (Curriculum Vitae) in 2024 [31+ Examples]
  • 35+ Job Interview Questions and Answers [Full List]

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15.3: Cover Letters

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  • Liza Long, Amy Minervini, and Joel Gladd
  • College of Western Idaho, College of Western Idaho, and Lewis-Clark State College

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Your Cover Letter

A cover letter is a letter of introduction, usually 3–4 paragraphs in length, that you attach to your résumé. It’s a way of introducing yourself to a potential employer and explaining why you are suited for a position. Employers may look for individualized and thoughtfully written cover letters as an initial method of screening out applicants who may who lack necessary basic skills, or who may not be sufficiently interested in the position.

Cover Letter Examples

Often an employer will request or require that a cover letter be included in the materials an applicant submits. There are also occasions when you might submit a cover letter uninvited (also called a letter of interest). For example, if you are initiating an inquiry about possible work or asking someone to send you information or provide other assistance.

With each résumé you send out, always include a cover letter specifically addressing your purposes.

Characteristics of an Effective Cover Letter

Cover letters should accomplish the following:

  • Get the attention of the prospective employer
  • Set you apart from any possible competition
  • Identify the position you are interested in
  • Specify how you learned about the position or company
  • Present highlights of your skills and accomplishments
  • Reflect your genuine interest
  • Please the eye and ear

The following video features Aimee Bateman, founder of , who explains how you can create an incredible cover letter. Download a transcript of the video .

Video: 5 Steps to an Incredible Cover Letter

Cover Letter Resources

1 (from About Careers) This site contains sample student/recent graduate cover letters (especially for high school students and college students and graduates seeking employment) as well as cover letter templates, writing tips, formats and templates, email cover letter examples, and examples by type of applicant.
2 (from CollegeGrad) This site contains resources about the reality of cover letters, using a cover letter, the worst use of the cover letter, the testimonial cover letter technique, and a cover letter checklist.
4 (from the Yale Office of Career Strategy) This site includes specifications for the cover letter framework (introductory paragraph, middle paragraph, concluding paragraph), as well as format and style.

Licenses and Attributions

CC licensed content, Original:

College Success. Authored by: Linda Bruce. Provided by: Lumen Learning. Located at: License: CC BY: Attribution.

All rights reserved content:

  • WHY DO I NEED A RESUME? Authored by: Leinard Tapat. Located at: . License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License.
  • Resume Tips for College Students From Employers. Authored by: Clarkson University. Located at: . License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License.
  • 5 Steps to an Incredible Cover Letter. Authored by: Aimee Bateman. Located at: . License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License.
  • Resume Tutorial. Authored by: Cameron Cassidy. Located at: . License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License.

Foundations of Academic Success: Words of Wisdom essay removed (exists elsewhere in this work).

Adaptions: Relocated learning objectives. Image of helping write a resume removed. Image of piles of paper on a table removed.

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How do I write a cover letter that gets job interviews?

Cover letters are your chance to introduce yourself to an employer. Like your resume, every cover letter you send should prove you can do the job you’re applying for. Include one with your resume to help convince an employer to invite you for an interview!

Here are key tips for writing a cover letter. There are links to more tips and examples in the Learn More section below. You can also talk with a job search expert at American Job Center for personal help: make an appointment today!

Before You Write a Cover Letter

Do some research before you start writing. It will help you come up with some ways you can help it (and also prepare you for an interview).

  • Review their website. What do they sell? How do they describe themselves in their “about us” and “careers” sections? Do they have any press releases?
  • Review their social media posts. What do they post about?
  • Search the company’s name online. Have they been written or talked about in the news?
  • Carefully read the job posting. What are the key job responsibilities and tasks?

Writing the Letter

Now’s the time to use what you’ve learned about the company and the job. Write a one-page letter that shows your interest and sell yourself as a candidate who should be interviewed:

1st Paragraph

  • Say which job you are applying for.
  • Tell why you are interested in this type of work and the employer.
  • If you know someone who works at the company, mention them – but only if you have their permission!

2nd Paragraph

  • Describe how you can help the company based on what you learned about them.
  • Mention your qualifications that are important to doing the job. Do you already have the skills they want? Have you already had the same work responsibilities? Operated the same equipment? Be specific.
  • Provide details about your success in a similar job that match the goals for the job you’re applying for. Maybe you increased output, reduced costs, increased sales, etc. Include metrics such as percentages and dollar amounts if possible.

3rd Paragraph

  • Summarize why you are applying for the role and why you would be a great fit. Keep the cover letter conclusion brief and explain that you look forward to the employer's response about possible next steps.

Learn more:

  • Sample cover letter for students
  • Cover letter checklist
  • CTHires has a cover letter builder and free workshops to help you write a great resume and cover letter.
  • Harvard Business Review: How to Write a Cover Letter
  • Indeed: How to Write a Cover Letter
  • American Job Center: Make an appointment

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Santa Ana Unified School District Logo

School-Based Mental Health Specialist I - After-School Programs - Temporary Contract - 2024-2025 School Year at Santa Ana Unified School District

Application Deadline

7/12/2024 4:30 PM Pacific

Date Posted

Number of openings, add'l salary info, length of work year, employment type, work schedule, about the employer.

Founded in 1888, the Santa Ana Unified School District (SAUSD) is the second largest school district in Orange County serving approximately 45,000 students and the 2nd largest employer in Santa Ana, providing job opportunities to approximately 5,000 employees. SAUSD is comprised of 32 Elementary, 8 Intermediate, 4 Alternative Educational Options, and 7 High Schools. SAUSD is committed to providing each of its students with a high-quality education, rigorous and advanced programs, and a nurturing, safe environment with state-of-the-art facilities, 21st century learning and technology, and a direct pathway to college upon graduation. Our district proudly boasts one of the highest graduation rates in the state of California.

Requirements / Qualifications

Please submit: 1. Complete Online Ed-Join Application 2. Cover Letter - Addressed to Jennifer A. Flores, Associate Superintendent of Human Resources 3. Resume 4. Three (3) Current Letters of Recommendation (Dated WITHIN ONE YEAR and SIGNED WITH WET SIGNATURE, ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED) 5. Detailed copy or screenshot of Valid CA Pupil Personnel Services Credential (authorizing service as a School Social Worker, School Psychologist, or School Counselor). Please do not attach the credential certificate copy. (*See below on how to obtain your detailed credential copy.) 6. Valid California Board of Behavioral Sciences license or registration in one of the following: Associate Marriage and Family Therapist (AMFT), Associate Clinical Social Worker (ACSW), OR Associate Professional Clinical Counselor (APCC) 7. Copy of Unofficial Transcripts with Masters Degree posted (MA in psychology, counseling, social work or related mental health field) *To obtain a copy of your detailed credential, please go to: 1. 2. Click on "Search for an Educator" 3. Enter your "Social Security Number and Birth Date" 4. Select your valid teaching credential for this position and print. 5. Upload to your application

Comments and Other Information

Links related to this job.

  • SAUSD Salary Schedules
  • Non Discrimination Statement
  • Sexual Harrasment
  • View Other Job Desc. / Ess. Elem.

CalSTRS Links

  • CalSTRS Info for New Educators

cover letter name of employer

Santa Ana Unified School District

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Diversionary Work Program (DWP)

The Diversionary Work Program (DWP) is a four-month program that helps Minnesota caregivers find jobs. The goal is to help caregivers quickly find work so that they do not need to go on the Minnesota Family Investment Program. Caregivers get help paying for housing and other bills, along with employment services, to help them find full-time work.

Caregivers usually start in the Diversionary Work Program before they are enrolled in the Minnesota Family Investment Program.


Caregivers must meet an income test, have less than $10,000 in assets (minus deductions) and provide verifications.

Caregivers will get help with employment services and may be eligible for assistance with housing, uitilities and other personal needs.

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How to apply

The Diversionary Work Program is for families with children and pregnant women. To qualify, applicants must:

  • Meet an initial income test
  • Meet an initial asset limit of $10,000 (excluding one vehicle per member of unit who is age 16 or older).

Caregivers will get employment services and other assistance to help them while they find and keep employment. 

Employment services

Caregivers must seek full-time work immediately once approved. Caregivers will get employment services that include:

  • Help finding work that fits their employment plan
  • Help identifying and dealing with family issues that may prevent or delay them from getting a job
  • Limited training that they can complete in four months or fewer.

Other assistance

Caregivers may also get help paying for:

  • Housing costs
  • Personal needs.

Often, rent and other bills are paid directly from a family's monthly benefit to the landlord or utility company, for example. Money left after those bills are paid can be used by families to pay for personal needs.

Other cash and employment resources

  • Department of Employment and Economic Development
  • General Assistance
  • Minnesota Supplemental Aid
  • Minnesota Unemployment Insurance Program
  • Refugee Cash Assistance

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Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP)

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SNAP Employment and Training

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Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

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Human Subjects Office

Medical terms in lay language.

Please use these descriptions in place of medical jargon in consent documents, recruitment materials and other study documents. Note: These terms are not the only acceptable plain language alternatives for these vocabulary words.

This glossary of terms is derived from a list copyrighted by the University of Kentucky, Office of Research Integrity (1990).

For clinical research-specific definitions, see also the Clinical Research Glossary developed by the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials (MRCT) Center of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard  and the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) .

Alternative Lay Language for Medical Terms for use in Informed Consent Documents

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I  J  K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W  X  Y  Z

ABDOMEN/ABDOMINAL body cavity below diaphragm that contains stomach, intestines, liver and other organs ABSORB take up fluids, take in ACIDOSIS condition when blood contains more acid than normal ACUITY clearness, keenness, esp. of vision and airways ACUTE new, recent, sudden, urgent ADENOPATHY swollen lymph nodes (glands) ADJUVANT helpful, assisting, aiding, supportive ADJUVANT TREATMENT added treatment (usually to a standard treatment) ANTIBIOTIC drug that kills bacteria and other germs ANTIMICROBIAL drug that kills bacteria and other germs ANTIRETROVIRAL drug that works against the growth of certain viruses ADVERSE EFFECT side effect, bad reaction, unwanted response ALLERGIC REACTION rash, hives, swelling, trouble breathing AMBULATE/AMBULATION/AMBULATORY walk, able to walk ANAPHYLAXIS serious, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction ANEMIA decreased red blood cells; low red cell blood count ANESTHETIC a drug or agent used to decrease the feeling of pain, or eliminate the feeling of pain by putting you to sleep ANGINA pain resulting from not enough blood flowing to the heart ANGINA PECTORIS pain resulting from not enough blood flowing to the heart ANOREXIA disorder in which person will not eat; lack of appetite ANTECUBITAL related to the inner side of the forearm ANTIBODY protein made in the body in response to foreign substance ANTICONVULSANT drug used to prevent seizures ANTILIPEMIC a drug that lowers fat levels in the blood ANTITUSSIVE a drug used to relieve coughing ARRHYTHMIA abnormal heartbeat; any change from the normal heartbeat ASPIRATION fluid entering the lungs, such as after vomiting ASSAY lab test ASSESS to learn about, measure, evaluate, look at ASTHMA lung disease associated with tightening of air passages, making breathing difficult ASYMPTOMATIC without symptoms AXILLA armpit

BENIGN not malignant, without serious consequences BID twice a day BINDING/BOUND carried by, to make stick together, transported BIOAVAILABILITY the extent to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the body BLOOD PROFILE series of blood tests BOLUS a large amount given all at once BONE MASS the amount of calcium and other minerals in a given amount of bone BRADYARRHYTHMIAS slow, irregular heartbeats BRADYCARDIA slow heartbeat BRONCHOSPASM breathing distress caused by narrowing of the airways

CARCINOGENIC cancer-causing CARCINOMA type of cancer CARDIAC related to the heart CARDIOVERSION return to normal heartbeat by electric shock CATHETER a tube for withdrawing or giving fluids CATHETER a tube placed near the spinal cord and used for anesthesia (indwelling epidural) during surgery CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) brain and spinal cord CEREBRAL TRAUMA damage to the brain CESSATION stopping CHD coronary heart disease CHEMOTHERAPY treatment of disease, usually cancer, by chemical agents CHRONIC continuing for a long time, ongoing CLINICAL pertaining to medical care CLINICAL TRIAL an experiment involving human subjects COMA unconscious state COMPLETE RESPONSE total disappearance of disease CONGENITAL present before birth CONJUNCTIVITIS redness and irritation of the thin membrane that covers the eye CONSOLIDATION PHASE treatment phase intended to make a remission permanent (follows induction phase) CONTROLLED TRIAL research study in which the experimental treatment or procedure is compared to a standard (control) treatment or procedure COOPERATIVE GROUP association of multiple institutions to perform clinical trials CORONARY related to the blood vessels that supply the heart, or to the heart itself CT SCAN (CAT) computerized series of x-rays (computerized tomography) CULTURE test for infection, or for organisms that could cause infection CUMULATIVE added together from the beginning CUTANEOUS relating to the skin CVA stroke (cerebrovascular accident)

DERMATOLOGIC pertaining to the skin DIASTOLIC lower number in a blood pressure reading DISTAL toward the end, away from the center of the body DIURETIC "water pill" or drug that causes increase in urination DOPPLER device using sound waves to diagnose or test DOUBLE BLIND study in which neither investigators nor subjects know what drug or treatment the subject is receiving DYSFUNCTION state of improper function DYSPLASIA abnormal cells

ECHOCARDIOGRAM sound wave test of the heart EDEMA excess fluid collecting in tissue EEG electric brain wave tracing (electroencephalogram) EFFICACY effectiveness ELECTROCARDIOGRAM electrical tracing of the heartbeat (ECG or EKG) ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE an imbalance of minerals in the blood EMESIS vomiting EMPIRIC based on experience ENDOSCOPIC EXAMINATION viewing an  internal part of the body with a lighted tube  ENTERAL by way of the intestines EPIDURAL outside the spinal cord ERADICATE get rid of (such as disease) Page 2 of 7 EVALUATED, ASSESSED examined for a medical condition EXPEDITED REVIEW rapid review of a protocol by the IRB Chair without full committee approval, permitted with certain low-risk research studies EXTERNAL outside the body EXTRAVASATE to leak outside of a planned area, such as out of a blood vessel

FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the branch of federal government that approves new drugs FIBROUS having many fibers, such as scar tissue FIBRILLATION irregular beat of the heart or other muscle

GENERAL ANESTHESIA pain prevention by giving drugs to cause loss of consciousness, as during surgery GESTATIONAL pertaining to pregnancy

HEMATOCRIT amount of red blood cells in the blood HEMATOMA a bruise, a black and blue mark HEMODYNAMIC MEASURING blood flow HEMOLYSIS breakdown in red blood cells HEPARIN LOCK needle placed in the arm with blood thinner to keep the blood from clotting HEPATOMA cancer or tumor of the liver HERITABLE DISEASE can be transmitted to one’s offspring, resulting in damage to future children HISTOPATHOLOGIC pertaining to the disease status of body tissues or cells HOLTER MONITOR a portable machine for recording heart beats HYPERCALCEMIA high blood calcium level HYPERKALEMIA high blood potassium level HYPERNATREMIA high blood sodium level HYPERTENSION high blood pressure HYPOCALCEMIA low blood calcium level HYPOKALEMIA low blood potassium level HYPONATREMIA low blood sodium level HYPOTENSION low blood pressure HYPOXEMIA a decrease of oxygen in the blood HYPOXIA a decrease of oxygen reaching body tissues HYSTERECTOMY surgical removal of the uterus, ovaries (female sex glands), or both uterus and ovaries

IATROGENIC caused by a physician or by treatment IDE investigational device exemption, the license to test an unapproved new medical device IDIOPATHIC of unknown cause IMMUNITY defense against, protection from IMMUNOGLOBIN a protein that makes antibodies IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE drug which works against the body's immune (protective) response, often used in transplantation and diseases caused by immune system malfunction IMMUNOTHERAPY giving of drugs to help the body's immune (protective) system; usually used to destroy cancer cells IMPAIRED FUNCTION abnormal function IMPLANTED placed in the body IND investigational new drug, the license to test an unapproved new drug INDUCTION PHASE beginning phase or stage of a treatment INDURATION hardening INDWELLING remaining in a given location, such as a catheter INFARCT death of tissue due to lack of blood supply INFECTIOUS DISEASE transmitted from one person to the next INFLAMMATION swelling that is generally painful, red, and warm INFUSION slow injection of a substance into the body, usually into the blood by means of a catheter INGESTION eating; taking by mouth INTERFERON drug which acts against viruses; antiviral agent INTERMITTENT occurring (regularly or irregularly) between two time points; repeatedly stopping, then starting again INTERNAL within the body INTERIOR inside of the body INTRAMUSCULAR into the muscle; within the muscle INTRAPERITONEAL into the abdominal cavity INTRATHECAL into the spinal fluid INTRAVENOUS (IV) through the vein INTRAVESICAL in the bladder INTUBATE the placement of a tube into the airway INVASIVE PROCEDURE puncturing, opening, or cutting the skin INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG (IND) a new drug that has not been approved by the FDA INVESTIGATIONAL METHOD a treatment method which has not been proven to be beneficial or has not been accepted as standard care ISCHEMIA decreased oxygen in a tissue (usually because of decreased blood flow)

LAPAROTOMY surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the abdominal wall to enable a doctor to look at the organs inside LESION wound or injury; a diseased patch of skin LETHARGY sleepiness, tiredness LEUKOPENIA low white blood cell count LIPID fat LIPID CONTENT fat content in the blood LIPID PROFILE (PANEL) fat and cholesterol levels in the blood LOCAL ANESTHESIA creation of insensitivity to pain in a small, local area of the body, usually by injection of numbing drugs LOCALIZED restricted to one area, limited to one area LUMEN the cavity of an organ or tube (e.g., blood vessel) LYMPHANGIOGRAPHY an x-ray of the lymph nodes or tissues after injecting dye into lymph vessels (e.g., in feet) LYMPHOCYTE a type of white blood cell important in immunity (protection) against infection LYMPHOMA a cancer of the lymph nodes (or tissues)

MALAISE a vague feeling of bodily discomfort, feeling badly MALFUNCTION condition in which something is not functioning properly MALIGNANCY cancer or other progressively enlarging and spreading tumor, usually fatal if not successfully treated MEDULLABLASTOMA a type of brain tumor MEGALOBLASTOSIS change in red blood cells METABOLIZE process of breaking down substances in the cells to obtain energy METASTASIS spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another METRONIDAZOLE drug used to treat infections caused by parasites (invading organisms that take up living in the body) or other causes of anaerobic infection (not requiring oxygen to survive) MI myocardial infarction, heart attack MINIMAL slight MINIMIZE reduce as much as possible Page 4 of 7 MONITOR check on; keep track of; watch carefully MOBILITY ease of movement MORBIDITY undesired result or complication MORTALITY death MOTILITY the ability to move MRI magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic pictures of the inside of the body, created using magnetic rather than x-ray energy MUCOSA, MUCOUS MEMBRANE moist lining of digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and urinary tracts MYALGIA muscle aches MYOCARDIAL pertaining to the heart muscle MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION heart attack

NASOGASTRIC TUBE placed in the nose, reaching to the stomach NCI the National Cancer Institute NECROSIS death of tissue NEOPLASIA/NEOPLASM tumor, may be benign or malignant NEUROBLASTOMA a cancer of nerve tissue NEUROLOGICAL pertaining to the nervous system NEUTROPENIA decrease in the main part of the white blood cells NIH the National Institutes of Health NONINVASIVE not breaking, cutting, or entering the skin NOSOCOMIAL acquired in the hospital

OCCLUSION closing; blockage; obstruction ONCOLOGY the study of tumors or cancer OPHTHALMIC pertaining to the eye OPTIMAL best, most favorable or desirable ORAL ADMINISTRATION by mouth ORTHOPEDIC pertaining to the bones OSTEOPETROSIS rare bone disorder characterized by dense bone OSTEOPOROSIS softening of the bones OVARIES female sex glands

PARENTERAL given by injection PATENCY condition of being open PATHOGENESIS development of a disease or unhealthy condition PERCUTANEOUS through the skin PERIPHERAL not central PER OS (PO) by mouth PHARMACOKINETICS the study of the way the body absorbs, distributes, and gets rid of a drug PHASE I first phase of study of a new drug in humans to determine action, safety, and proper dosing PHASE II second phase of study of a new drug in humans, intended to gather information about safety and effectiveness of the drug for certain uses PHASE III large-scale studies to confirm and expand information on safety and effectiveness of new drug for certain uses, and to study common side effects PHASE IV studies done after the drug is approved by the FDA, especially to compare it to standard care or to try it for new uses PHLEBITIS irritation or inflammation of the vein PLACEBO an inactive substance; a pill/liquid that contains no medicine PLACEBO EFFECT improvement seen with giving subjects a placebo, though it contains no active drug/treatment PLATELETS small particles in the blood that help with clotting POTENTIAL possible POTENTIATE increase or multiply the effect of a drug or toxin (poison) by giving another drug or toxin at the same time (sometimes an unintentional result) POTENTIATOR an agent that helps another agent work better PRENATAL before birth PROPHYLAXIS a drug given to prevent disease or infection PER OS (PO) by mouth PRN as needed PROGNOSIS outlook, probable outcomes PRONE lying on the stomach PROSPECTIVE STUDY following patients forward in time PROSTHESIS artificial part, most often limbs, such as arms or legs PROTOCOL plan of study PROXIMAL closer to the center of the body, away from the end PULMONARY pertaining to the lungs

QD every day; daily QID four times a day

RADIATION THERAPY x-ray or cobalt treatment RANDOM by chance (like the flip of a coin) RANDOMIZATION chance selection RBC red blood cell RECOMBINANT formation of new combinations of genes RECONSTITUTION putting back together the original parts or elements RECUR happen again REFRACTORY not responding to treatment REGENERATION re-growth of a structure or of lost tissue REGIMEN pattern of giving treatment RELAPSE the return of a disease REMISSION disappearance of evidence of cancer or other disease RENAL pertaining to the kidneys REPLICABLE possible to duplicate RESECT remove or cut out surgically RETROSPECTIVE STUDY looking back over past experience

SARCOMA a type of cancer SEDATIVE a drug to calm or make less anxious SEMINOMA a type of testicular cancer (found in the male sex glands) SEQUENTIALLY in a row, in order SOMNOLENCE sleepiness SPIROMETER an instrument to measure the amount of air taken into and exhaled from the lungs STAGING an evaluation of the extent of the disease STANDARD OF CARE a treatment plan that the majority of the medical community would accept as appropriate STENOSIS narrowing of a duct, tube, or one of the blood vessels in the heart STOMATITIS mouth sores, inflammation of the mouth STRATIFY arrange in groups for analysis of results (e.g., stratify by age, sex, etc.) STUPOR stunned state in which it is difficult to get a response or the attention of the subject SUBCLAVIAN under the collarbone SUBCUTANEOUS under the skin SUPINE lying on the back SUPPORTIVE CARE general medical care aimed at symptoms, not intended to improve or cure underlying disease SYMPTOMATIC having symptoms SYNDROME a condition characterized by a set of symptoms SYSTOLIC top number in blood pressure; pressure during active contraction of the heart

TERATOGENIC capable of causing malformations in a fetus (developing baby still inside the mother’s body) TESTES/TESTICLES male sex glands THROMBOSIS clotting THROMBUS blood clot TID three times a day TITRATION a method for deciding on the strength of a drug or solution; gradually increasing the dose T-LYMPHOCYTES type of white blood cells TOPICAL on the surface TOPICAL ANESTHETIC applied to a certain area of the skin and reducing pain only in the area to which applied TOXICITY side effects or undesirable effects of a drug or treatment TRANSDERMAL through the skin TRANSIENTLY temporarily TRAUMA injury; wound TREADMILL walking machine used to test heart function

UPTAKE absorbing and taking in of a substance by living tissue

VALVULOPLASTY plastic repair of a valve, especially a heart valve VARICES enlarged veins VASOSPASM narrowing of the blood vessels VECTOR a carrier that can transmit disease-causing microorganisms (germs and viruses) VENIPUNCTURE needle stick, blood draw, entering the skin with a needle VERTICAL TRANSMISSION spread of disease

WBC white blood cell


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    Founded in 1888, the Santa Ana Unified School District (SAUSD) is the second largest school district in Orange County serving approximately 45,000 students and the 2nd largest employer in Santa Ana, providing job opportunities to approximately 5,000 employees. SAUSD is comprised of 32 Elementary, 8 Intermediate, 4 Alternative Educational Options, and 7 High Schools.

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    Human Subjects Office / IRB Hardin Library, Suite 105A 600 Newton Rd Iowa City, IA 52242-1098. Voice: 319-335-6564 Fax: 319-335-7310

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